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Nuclear Physics, JU, Second Semester, (Saed Dababneh). 1 Nuclear Size Alpha particle (+2e) Gold nucleus (+79e) d Quite old!!!

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Nuclear Physics, JU, Second Semester, (Saed Dababneh). 2 Nuclear Size Closest approach d. E = E Coulomb d = 2kZe 2 /E What about the recoil nucleus? Show that where m N : mass of the nucleus m : mass of alpha What are the values of d for 10, 20, 30 and 40 MeV on Au? How does this explain … ?

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Nuclear Physics, JU, Second Semester, (Saed Dababneh). 3 Nuclear Shape Crude Nucleons in the nucleus are confined to an approximately spherically symmetric structure Nuclear radius. Deformations…! Consequences….!! Advanced models. HW 5 If it is assumed that the charge is uniformly spherically distributed in a nucleus, show that the electric potential energy of a proton is given by:

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Nuclear Physics, JU, Second Semester, (Saed Dababneh). 4 Nuclear Mass Nuclear masses measured to high accuracy: mass spectrograph. energy measurement in nuclear reactions. If same B. Absolute measurement

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Nuclear Physics, JU, Second Semester, (Saed Dababneh). 5 m( 12 C) = 12 u. m( 1 H) with high precision? Relative measurement. Mass Doublet method. Mass 128. Difference in mass between C 9 H 20 and C 10 H 8 = u = 12m( 1 H) – m( 12 C) m( 1 H) = u. Usually atomic masses are tabulated. Mass of the atom < Zm H + Nm n. Why? Mass decrement = difference between actual mass and mass number: Δ = m – A Δ could be positive or negative. Nuclear Mass

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Nuclear Physics, JU, Second Semester, (Saed Dababneh). 6 Nuclear Binding Energy B tot (A,Z) = [ Zm H + Nm n - m(A,Z) ] c 2 B m B ave (A,Z) = B tot (A,Z) / A Separation Energy Neutron separation energy: (BE of last neutron) S n = [ m(A-1,Z) + m n – m(A,Z) ] c 2 = B tot (A,Z) - B tot (A-1,Z) Prove that S p = [ m(A-1,Z-1) + m( 1 H) – m(A,Z) ] c 2 = B tot (A,Z) - B tot (A-1,Z-1) Prove that S = ?? HW 6 HW 6 Krane 3.9, 3.12, 3.13 and Magic numbers

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Nuclear Physics, JU, Second Semester, (Saed Dababneh). 7 Nuclear Binding Energy Magic numbers

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Nuclear Physics, JU, Second Semester, (Saed Dababneh). 8 Nuclear Binding Energy In general X Y + a S a (X) = (m a + m Y –m X ) c 2 = B X –B Y –B a The energy needed to remove a nucleon from a nucleus ~ 8 MeV average binding energy per nucleon (Exceptions???). Nuclear Reactions a + X > Y + b or X(a,b)Y Q-value = [m(a) + m(X) – m(Y) –m(b)] c 2 Solve problem 11.6 in Krane.

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Nuclear Physics, JU, Second Semester, (Saed Dababneh). 9 Nuclear Binding Energy Fission Fusion

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