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1 Coulomb Scattering b d r min vovo v min Elastic or inelastic. Elastic Rutherford scattering. At any distance: V = 0 T a = ½mv o 2 l = mv o b No dependence on Accelerator Physics, JU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, Second Semester, (Saed Dababneh). 2 Closest approach d. E = E Coulomb d = 2kZe 2 /E What about the recoil nucleus? HW 9 HW 9 Show that where m N : mass of the nucleus m : mass of alpha What are the values of d for 10, 20, 30 and 40 MeV on Au? How does this explain … ? Coulomb Scattering

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3 Accelerator Physics, JU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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4 Coulomb Scattering n target nuclei / cm 3 x target thickness (thin). nx target nuclei / cm 2 b db d b HW 10 Show that and hence Rutherford cross section Accelerator Physics, JU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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5 Coulomb Scattering Study Fig (a,b,c,d) in Krane HW 11 Show that the fraction of incident alpha particles scattered at backward angles from a 2 m gold foil is 7.48x See also Fig in Krane. Accelerator Physics, JU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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6 Coulomb Scattering RBS – Channeling. Ion implantation. Occupational or substitutional impurities.

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7 Coulomb Scattering Elastic Rutherford scattering. Inelastic Coulomb excitation. See the corresponding alpha spectrum of Fig in Krane. Accelerator Physics, JU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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8 Coulomb Scattering Accelerator Physics, JU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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Excitation Ionization ion-pair, suppress recombination in detectors. Energy loss Accelerator Physics, JU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh). 9 Interaction of heavy charged particles Electronic or nuclear (Rutherford, nuclear reactions, …) or radiative (Bremsstrahlung). Depletion layer. Delta rays and secondary electrons. Electron suppression for charge integration in accelerators. Faraday Cup. Tracks. Detectors mainly designed to make use of electronic interactions. SRIM Principles of Spectrometry Al in Al ?

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Accelerator Physics, JU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh). 10 Stopping power Stopping power Bethe-Bloch formula Minimum ionizing particles (mip). ~1/E Principles of Spectrometry ~1/E

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Accelerator Physics, JU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh). 11 eV / Å keV / m MeV / mm keV / ( g/cm 2 ) MeV / (mg/cm 2 ) keV / (mg/cm 2 ) eV / (1x10 15 atoms/cm 2 ) Units(conversion) You will encounter this when you run SRIM Principles of Spectrometry

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Accelerator Physics, JU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh). 12 Electron pick-up. ~1/E What about fission fragments????? Bragg curve stochastic energy straggling. Energy loss is a stochastic process, thus energy straggling. Principles of Spectrometry Target Accelerated beam

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Accelerator Physics, JU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh). 13 Hadrontherapy

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