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**Reactor Model: One-Group**

Briefly, we go through project 3. R z H y x r Reactor Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Reactor Model: One-Group**

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Reactor Model: One-Group**

z H y x r Reactor Criticality condition? Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Reactor Model: One-Group**

z Reflected Slab Reactor Core Reflector Reflector x a/2 For steady-state, homogeneous, 1-D b a b C Core R Reflector Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Reactor Model: One-Group**

Verify. BC Criticality condition. Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Reactor Model: One-Group**

Criticality condition. For bare slab CC was / 2. Smaller core for reflected reactor. Save fuel. Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Criticality “Calculation”**

Can we solve “real” reactor problems analytically? The previous discussion provides understanding of the concepts but also indicates the need for computational techniques. Assume: Adjust parameters so that = 0 (Steady-state). What parameters and how to adjust them? Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Criticality “Calculation”**

Fixed design and geometry the free variable is the fuel. As we did earlier (be guided by HW 21): Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Criticality “Calculation”**

Build an algorithm. “Guess” (reasonably) initial kfudge and (or ) for the zeroth iteration. Calculate the initial source term. Iterate: Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Criticality “Calculation”**

Or: If for example k > 1, take action to reduce source or increase absorption. How? Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**How to Adjust Criticality**

Reactor Kinetics Reactor kinetics refers to the manipulation of parameters that affect k and to the subsequent direct response of the reactor system. Examples are: • Absorber rods or shim movements to compensate for fuel burnup. • Safety scram rods to rapidly shutdown the chain reaction. • Control rods to provide real-time control to keep k = 1 or to maneuver up and down in power. ….. Reactor Dynamics Reactor dynamics refers to the more indirect feedback mechanisms due to power level effects and other overall systems effects such as: • Temperature feedback. • Void feedback. • Pump speed control (affects water density and temperature). … Negative or positive reactivity. Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**How to Adjust Criticality**

Before all: Core Design The transient response of the reactor to the above direct and indirect changes in basic parameters is highly dependent on the design details of the reactor. Sample issues are: • Where should the control rods be placed for maximum effectiveness? • Will the power go up or down if a void is introduced into the reactor? • Will the power go up or down if core temperature goes up? • How often should the reactor be refueled? • and so on... Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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