Presentation on theme: "An Uncertain Peace: Europe after World War I"— Presentation transcript:
1An Uncertain Peace: Europe after World War I Chapter 26, pp & 758
2What does this cartoon say about the relationship between countries after World War I and the ability of the League of Nations to bring peace?Cartoon Source:
3France on the search for Allies US and GB alienate France after WWICommunist Russia is considered a hostile threatFrance must find new allies to help protect them from GermanyTurn to Poland and Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia (Little Entente)WHAT WAS THE FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEM WITH THESE ALLIANCES?
4Europe in the early 1920sIn the early 1920s all countries in Europe were suffering from inflation, unemployment and political instability as a result of WWI,HOWEVER Germany suffered the most.
5A post-WWI world Versailles---Too soft…? Too hard…? Germany --- angry, humiliatedVersailles---Too soft…? Too hard…?E. Europe---communist…spreading???France---afraid, isolated – turns East!1921 pact with Poland / Czech / Yugo…England---undependable – but saw German’s healthy economy as keyJohn M. Keynes: Econ. Conse. Of the PeaceUS---isolationist
6Post-War England England: 1919 D.L.George – Labour Party: revisionist socialism replaces liberal-Ramsay McDonald, 1924IRELANDEaster Rebellion 1916: Sinn Fein of Ireland prominent1921 Free State – but Ulster revolts1949 Republic of IrelandDepression: 1920s-unemploymentIndia:Mahatma Gandhi 1919 leads self-govt. movement (1948 assassinated because of his agreement to independent Pakistan)Urges Indians to revive customs – spinningIndependent India in 1947
7Post-War France 1919 Election: Premier Alexandre Millerand 1921 – replaced by Briand – then Poincare (1926), who stabilized France’s currency and secured prosperityFinancial problems: Debts of wardepend on German $ but Dec. ‘22 Germany defaultJan. ‘23-’25 Ruhr Occupation/Crisis - occupation by France / Belgium!!!(try to gain money from industry there – resistance)Briand – for reconciliation with Germany / USSR1931 Depression --- recovery? fall again?different political cabinets pre ‘34)1935 Pierre Laval (conserv) – falls ‘361936 Coalition “Popular Front” (Blum) soc/com
8French Policy of Coercion b/c France does not feel protected from the German threat they find other ways to “deal” with the GermansEconomic sanctions and threatsWar reparations = $33 billion – eventually Germany can’t pay SOFrance and Belgium send troops to occupy the Ruhr Valley with 70,000 troops.No! You can’t force me!
10French Policy of Coercion: The French intended to use the produce of Germany’s industrial heartland as payment in kind for reparations. The German government began a policy of passive resistance and called a general strike. Some began a low level terrorist campaign. The French reacted brutally with aggressive house searches, hostage taking and shooting over a hundred Germans.
11What is hyper-inflation? The economic effects of the occupation were catastrophic. The loss of production in the Ruhr caused a fall in production elsewhere and unemployment rose from 2% to 23%.Prices rose out of control as tax revenues collapsed and the government financed its activities through the printing of money. By November prices were a billion times their pre-war levels.
15Hyper-Inflation causes… Communist uprising in Oct – attempt to take over HamburgHitler’s Nazi party stages the Beer-Hall Putsch in Munich in Nov. 1923
16The Hopeful Years, 1924-1929 Gustav Streseman Ended passive resistance against FranceAccepted Treaty of Versailles and renegotiated reparations paymentsDawes Plan lower required payments and lent Germany $200 millionStabilized the currency = end of hyper-inflationGerman and European economy begins to recover
17The Spirit of Locarno = new spirit of international cooperation Treaty of Locarno, 1925Germany accepted its borders with France and Belgium as dictated in Treaty of Versailles…”Peace at Last”What about the border with Poland?Maybe not as permanent as the western border, we’ll see…Germany enters League of Nations, March 1926What does this new relationship signify?Kellogg-Briand Pact, 192863 nations pledge to “renounce war as an instrument of national policy”
18European Gov’ts by 1939 Democratic Totalitarian Authoritarian Great BritainFranceLow CountriesScandinavian statesSwitzerlandCzechoslovakia(USA)Italy (Mussolini)Germany (Hitler)Soviet Union (Stalin)BulgariaPolandYugoslaviaHungaryGreeceRomaniaSpainPortugal
19What is an Authoritarian State? A state that has a dictatorial government and some other trappings of a totalitarian state BUT does not demand that the masses be actively involved in the regime’s goals as a totalitarian state does.
20What is a Totalitarian State? A state characterized by government control over all aspects of economic, social, political, cultural and intellectual life, the subordination of the individual to the state, and insistence that the masses be actively involved in the regime’s goalsWhat is the role of propaganda in a totalitarian state?
21What is fascism?An ideology or movement that exalts the nation above the individual and calls for centralized government w/ a dictatorial leader, economic and social regimentation and forcible suppression of opposition; in particular, the ideology of Mussolini’s Fascist regime in Italy and Hitler’s in Germany