Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1914-1919 The World at War The lights are going out all over Europe: we shall not see them lit again in our lifetime. Sir Edward Grey English Foreign secretary.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "1914-1919 The World at War The lights are going out all over Europe: we shall not see them lit again in our lifetime. Sir Edward Grey English Foreign secretary."— Presentation transcript:

1 The World at War The lights are going out all over Europe: we shall not see them lit again in our lifetime. Sir Edward Grey English Foreign secretary Monday, March 8, 1914 (4 months prior to outbreak of WWI)

2 Preparation for War Largest ever peacetime armies / reserves German desire for place in the sun – Recognition of power – like Britain – French disagree: Alsace-Lorraine 1871 – English disagree: industrial / colonial competition Alliance systems: Designed by Bismarck as prevention of German shut-out – first Germany w/Russia / Austria – vs. France – Germanys Kaiser Wilhelm II unable to maintain Bismarcks complex relationships So,France allies with Russia (odd combo rad/conserv) –The one thing they have in common is Germany as the enemy THEN GB and Russia enter alliance

3 Why War? Crises: – Balkans: tensions increase –Austria/Russia Crisis 1: 1908 Austria annexes Bosnia & Herzegovina (the Serbs wanted B-H and thought that the Turks were going to give it to them) Crisis 2: 1 st & 2 nd Balkan Wars –1912 Balkan League (Se, Bu, Mo, Gr) vs. Ottomans Ottomans lose most of its territory in Europe –1913: Gr, Se, Ro, OE vs. Bu over Macedonia & Albania = Serbia blocked; Albania independent; Bulgaria loses a lot of territory

4 The suspected assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand is hustled into custody in Sarajevo in 1914.

5 Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914, moments before they are killed by an assassin working with the Black Hand terrorist group

6 Why War? Crisis 3: June 28, 1914 Serbian Gavrillo Princip of Union of Death / Black Hand kills Archduke Franz Ferdinand – heir to throne! Ongoing feelings that drive reaction to the assassination: – Serbs are still mad at Austrians for taking B-H – Franz Ferdinand was head of group of Austrians plotting to deal with Serbia once and for all Add insult to injury: Ferdinand was in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914 (his anniversary and most sacred day to Serbs – an insult)

7 Alliances after 1871 Three Emperors League (Dreikaiserbund), 1873 Austro-German Alliance, Alliance of 3 Emperors, Triple Alliance, Russo-French Alliance, Germany Aust. - Hung. Russia Italy France Triple Entente, GB Reinsurance Treaty, 1887 (Germany & Russia, secret treaty) 1902 GB allied w/ Japan 1904 = entente cordial btw. GB & Fr. End of GBs splendid isolation


9 Technology and Warfare The Great Arms Race !!!! Weapons were ahead of tactics – Machine guns – Barbed wire – Trench warfare – Hand Grenades – Heavy artillery – Tanks (Somme) – Gas Warfare – mustard and nerve gas British munitions plant

10 Technology and Warfare

11 Trench Warfare

12 The War at Sea Heavy battleships –Dreadnought – Competition with these ships began in the 1890s – Each nation built heavier and larger ships Submarines – Germans = unlimited use – sparks US conflict

13 Sinking of the Lusitania Germany sinks Lusitania – May 7, civilians, including 128 U.S. citizens killed Great Britain and USA force Germany to adopt limited use of submarines Jan Germany returns to unrestricted use of subs – by April 1917 USA enters WWI!

14 The War in the Air German Aircraft US 94th

15 War Begins Austria: must subdue Serbian separatism – July 23, 1914: 10-pt. Ultimatum to Serbia blank check from Germany July 25: William II & Theobald von Bethmann- Hollweg – War declared Austria vs Serbia, July 28; vs. Russia, July 30 Russia & France mobilized – Germany declares war vs. Russia, Aug 1 / vs. Belgium, Aug 3 Von Schlieffen Plan: Germany invades Belgium & violates Belgian Neutrality treaty of 1839 – France declares war, Aug 4 2-front: knock out France through Belgium, then on to Russia – trains troops for two fronts – Result Great Britain declares war on Germany, Aug 4 Aug 23 Japan (GB ally) declares war on Germany

16 Western Front

17 Western Front: focus on France Battle of the Marne: September 6-10, 1914 – Trench Warfare: GB & Fr halt German advance on Paris First Battle of Ypres : Oct. 14, 1914 / Second Battle of Ypres: April 22, 1915 Battle of the Somme, 1916 : Allied offensive 8 miles gained ½ men die per inch; I am staring at a sunlit picture of hell Siegfried Sassoon Battle of Verdun, 1916 : German offensive Third Battle of Ypres ( Passchendaele): July stalemate continues – in water! Second Battle of the Marne : March-August, 1918 – last decisive round of battles (w/ involvement of USA)

18 Third Battle of Ypres: Passchendaele

19 Eastern Front Eastern Front & Beyond: Battle of Tannenburg – Aug. 30, 1914 (Gens. Hindenburg & Ludendorff) Battle of Masurian Lakes – Sept. 9, 1914 Italy 1915 – abandons Germany & joins Allies by declaring war on Austria- Hungary Gallipoli – British & Australians vs. Turks – April 1915 Ottoman Empire: Lawrence of Arabia in 1917 British Col. T.E. Lawrence encourages Arabic revolts against Ottomans

20 The United States Weighs In Jan. 1917: Wilson pushes for peace without victors America not involved directly until April 6, 1917 Major incident: – Zimmerman Tele. 2/17: Germans use US telegraph lines to relay to their embassies in US and Mexico that unrestricted use of submarines will resume

21 The War on Land 1917…little hope… BUT… 1917…Russian Bolshevik Revolution begins March 3, 1918…Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Germany can move West BUT…. 1918…US enters the war! – 2 nd Battle of the Marne Aug 8, 1918 German General Lundendorff admits defeat

22 Germany defeated… Germanys defeat…Sept – October 6, 1918 German govt. requests armistice talks – Arguments over armistice --- soldiers revolt and est. revolutionary councils (soviets) – Nov. 9, 1918 Wilhelm II abdicates – flees to Holland Nov. 11, 1918: Friedrich Ebert declares the first German Republic in Weimar (Weimar Republic) and official armistice Kaiser Wilhelm II

23 Victors – Great Britain – France – United States – Italy – Belgium – Portugal Difficulty in Making Peace Directly Defeated – Germany – Austria-Hungary – Ottoman Empire – Bulgaria Indirectly Defeated – Russia

24 Major Personalities Georges Clemenceau: France The Tiger Woodrow Wilson: USA David Lloyd George: Great Britain squeeze the orange until the pips squeak Vittorio Orlando: Italy

25 The Treaty of Versailles: a difficult peace January 1919 – Paris – US, France, Great Britain, (Italy) +23 others – No Germany or Russia The fight begins: – France: desire to punish Germany Demilitarize Rhineland as buffer state – Woodrow Wilson: desire for Peace without Victors League of Nations (Jan 25, 1919); open covenants of peace, reduction of armaments; self-determination – GB: prevent Frances buffer state; make Germans pay $$ In the End – 5 sep. treaties w/ G, Au, Hu, Bu & OE

26 Results of Treaty of Versailles (& others) Results: Germany is blamed for the war (Article 231 War Guilt Clause) – Army can be no bigger than 100,000 – Reparations: for causing war - 32 billion dollars – Navy to be no larger than 24 ships – no subs – No new developments in air force – Demilitarize the Rhine area (but not a buffer state) – Lost 27,500 square miles of land League of Nations (Alsace Lorraine, part of Prussia) New nationsimperialism continues – Austria/Hungary: Austria / Hungary / Czechoslovakia / Romania / Poland / Yugoslavia – Polish Corridor to Baltic – France: Lebanon / Syria = mandates – GB: Iraq / Palestine (w/Jewish Nat'l. home) = mandates – Japan: Germanys holdings in China


28 Results The beginning of the end of 19 th century imperialism… Total number dead - over 9 million – France 1,500,000Britain 1,000,000 – Italy 500,000US 116,708 – Russia 1,700,000Germany 2,000,000 – Austria 1,250,000 A peace…made in quicksand

Download ppt "1914-1919 The World at War The lights are going out all over Europe: we shall not see them lit again in our lifetime. Sir Edward Grey English Foreign secretary."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google