Presentation on theme: "The World at War “The lights are going out all over Europe:"— Presentation transcript:
1 1914-1919 The World at War “The lights are going out all over Europe: we shall not see them lit againin our lifetime.”Sir Edward GreyEnglish Foreign secretaryMonday, March 8, 1914(4 months prior to outbreak of WWI)
2 Preparation for War Largest ever peacetime armies / reserves German desire for “place in the sun”Recognition of power – like BritainFrench disagree: Alsace-Lorraine 1871English disagree: industrial / colonial competitionAlliance systems: Designed by Bismarck as prevention of German shut-outfirst Germany w/Russia / Austria – vs. FranceGermany’s Kaiser Wilhelm II unable to maintain Bismarck’s complex relationshipsSo ,France allies with Russia (odd combo rad/conserv)The one thing they have in common is Germany as the enemyTHEN GB and Russia enter alliance
3 Why War? Balkans: tensions increase –Austria/Russia Crises: Crisis 1: 1908 Austria annexes Bosnia & Herzegovina (the Serbs wanted B-H and thought that the Turks were going to give it to them)Crisis 2: 1st & 2nd Balkan Wars1912 Balkan League (Se, Bu, Mo, Gr) vs. OttomansOttoman’s lose most of its territory in Europe1913: Gr, Se, Ro, OE vs. Bu over Macedonia & Albania = Serbia blocked; Albania independent; Bulgaria loses a lot of territory
4 The suspected assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand is hustled into custody in Sarajevo in 1914.
5 Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914, moments before they are killed by an assassin working with the Black Hand terrorist group
6 Why War?Crisis 3: June 28, 1914 Serbian Gavrillo Princip of “Union of Death” / Black Hand kills Archduke Franz Ferdinand – heir to throne!Ongoing feelings that drive reaction to the assassination:Serbs are still mad at Austrians for taking B-HFranz Ferdinand was head of group of Austrians plotting to deal with Serbia once and for allAdd insult to injury: Ferdinand was in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914 (his anniversary and most sacred day to Serbs – an insult)
7 Alliances after 1871 Three Emperors’ League (Dreikaiserbund), 1873 Austro-German Alliance,Alliance of 3 Emperors,Triple Alliance,GermanyRusso-French Alliance,Aust.-Hung.RussiaReinsurance Treaty, 1887 (Germany & Russia, secret treaty)1902 GB allied w/ Japan1904 = entente cordial btw. GB & Fr.Triple Entente,FranceItalyGBEnd of GB’s “splendid isolation”
9 Technology and Warfare The Great Arms Race !!!! Weapons were ahead of tacticsMachine gunsBarbed wireTrench warfareHand GrenadesHeavy artilleryTanks (Somme)Gas Warfare – mustard and nerve gasBritish munitions plant
12 The War at Sea Heavy battleships – “Dreadnought” Submarines Competition with these ships began in the 1890sEach nation built heavier and larger shipsSubmarinesGermans = unlimited usesparks US conflict
13 Sinking of the Lusitania Germany sinks Lusitania – May 7, civilians, including 128 U.S. citizens killedGreat Britain and USA force Germany to adopt limited use of submarinesJan Germany returns to unrestricted use of subs – by April 1917 USA enters WWI!
15 War Begins Austria: must subdue Serbian separatism July 23, 1914: 10-pt. Ultimatum to Serbia“blank check” from GermanyJuly 25: William II & Theobald von Bethmann-HollwegWar declaredAustria vs Serbia, July 28; vs. Russia, July 30Russia & France mobilized – Germany declares war vs. Russia, Aug 1 / vs. Belgium, Aug 3Von Schlieffen Plan:Germany invades Belgium & violates Belgian Neutrality treaty of 1839 – France declares war, Aug 42-front: knock out France through Belgium, then on to Russia – trains troops for two frontsResultGreat Britain declares war on Germany, Aug 4Aug 23 Japan (GB ally) declares war on Germany
17 Western Front: focus on France Battle of the Marne: September 6-10, 1914 – Trench Warfare: GB & Fr halt German advance on ParisFirst Battle of Ypres: Oct. 14, 1914 / Second Battle of Ypres: April 22, 1915Battle of the Somme, 1916: Allied offensive8 miles gained ½ men die per inch; “I am staring at a sunlit picture of hell” Siegfried SassoonBattle of Verdun, 1916: German offensiveThird Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele): July stalemate continues – in water!Second Battle of the Marne: March-August, 1918 – last decisive round of battles (w/ involvement of USA)
19 Eastern Front Eastern Front & Beyond: Battle of Tannenburg – Aug. 30, 1914 (Gens. Hindenburg & Ludendorff)Battle of Masurian Lakes – Sept. 9, 1914Italy 1915 – abandons Germany & joins Allies by declaring war on Austria-HungaryGallipoli – British & Australians vs. Turks – April 1915Ottoman Empire: Lawrence of Arabia—in 1917 British Col. T.E. Lawrence encourages Arabic revolts against Ottomans
20 The United States Weighs In Jan. 1917: Wilson pushes for “peace without victors”America not involved directly until April 6, 1917Major incident:Zimmerman Tele. 2/17: Germans use US telegraph lines to relay to their embassies in US and Mexico that unrestricted use of submarines will resume
21 The War on Land 1917…little hope… BUT… 1917…Russian Bolshevik Revolution beginsMarch 3, 1918…Treaty of Brest-LitovskGermany can move WestBUT….1918…US enters the war! – 2nd Battle of the MarneAug 8, 1918 German General Lundendorff admits defeat
22 Germany defeated… Germany’s defeat…Sept. 1918 October 6, 1918 German gov’t. requests armistice talksArguments over armistice --- soldiers revolt and est. revolutionary councils (“soviets”)Nov. 9, 1918 Wilhelm II abdicates – flees to HollandNov. 11, 1918: Friedrich Ebert declares the first German Republic in Weimar (Weimar Republic) and official armisticeKaiser Wilhelm II
23 Difficulty in Making Peace VictorsGreat BritainFranceUnited StatesItalyBelgiumPortugalDirectly DefeatedGermanyAustria-HungaryOttoman EmpireBulgariaIndirectly DefeatedRussia
24 Major Personalities Vittorio Orlando: Italy Georges Clemenceau: France “The Tiger”Vittorio Orlando: ItalyDavid Lloyd George: Great Britain“squeeze the orange until the pips squeak”Woodrow Wilson: USA
25 The Treaty of Versailles: a difficult peace January 1919 – ParisUS, France, Great Britain, (Italy) +23 othersNo Germany or RussiaThe fight begins:France: desire to punish GermanyDemilitarizeRhineland as buffer stateWoodrow Wilson: desire for “Peace without Victors”League of Nations (Jan 25, 1919); “open covenants of peace”, reduction of armaments; self-determinationGB: prevent France’s “buffer state”; make Germans pay $$In the End5 sep. treaties w/ G, Au, Hu, Bu & OE
26 Results of Treaty of Versailles (& others) Results: Germany is blamed for the war (Article 231 War Guilt Clause)Army can be no bigger than 100,000Reparations: for causing war - 32 billion dollarsNavy to be no larger than 24 ships – no subsNo new developments in air forceDemilitarize the Rhine area (but not a buffer state)Lost 27,500 square miles of land League of Nations (Alsace Lorraine, part of Prussia)New nations—imperialism continuesAustria/Hungary:Austria / Hungary / Czechoslovakia / Romania / Poland / Yugoslavia“Polish Corridor” to BalticFrance: Lebanon / Syria = mandatesGB: Iraq / Palestine (w/Jewish Nat'l. home) = mandatesJapan: Germany’s holdings in China
28 Results The beginning of the end of 19th century imperialism… Total number dead - over 9 millionFrance 1,500,000 Britain 1,000,000Italy 500,000 US 116,708Russia 1,700,000 Germany 2,000,000Austria 1,250,000A peace…made in quicksand
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