Presentation on theme: "1 England in the 17th Century – Part II Establishing a Constitutional Monarchy: From the Stuarts to the Hanoverians & Robert Walpole This presentation."— Presentation transcript:
1 England in the 17th Century – Part II Establishing a Constitutional Monarchy: From the Stuarts to the Hanoverians & Robert Walpole This presentation will probably involve audience discussion, which will create action items. Use PowerPoint to keep track of these action items during your presentation In Slide Show, click on the right mouse button Select Meeting Minder Select the Action Items tab Type in action items as they come up Click OK to dismiss this box This will automatically create an Action Item slide at the end of your presentation with your points entered.
1/1/ From Absolutism to Constitutionalism And how does England do it??? -ongoing opposition between kings and Parliament -bloody civil war -execution of a king -military dictatorship -son of executed king returned to throne -bloodless revolution, -finally constitutional monarchy! The Triumph of Parliament!!!!
1/1/ The Restoration of the Stuarts Charles II –Fought for his father during the Civil War –Lived in exile in Holland and France –Attempted failed revolution in 1651 –Invited to return in 1660: crowned on his birthday, 30 May 1660
Division of Power King could: choose his own ministers decide foreign policy call Parliament veto Parliaments laws dismiss Parliament Parliament could: impeach minister could make laws control of state finances 1/1/2014 4
5 Religious Issues & Charles II CII = Moderate Religious Toleration –BUT Puritans were punished Parliament = Anglican Church & Book of Common Prayer ONLY –Clarendon Code, 1661 – all clergyman MUST swear an oath to Anglicanism –Non-Anglicans = NO PUBLIC worship –Anglicans worried Charles II has Catholic tendencies
1/1/ Religious Issues = Political Change Treaty of Dover - Secret agreement with France (Louis XIV), 1670 –Charles would receive 200,000 pounds annually from France in return for helping Catholics, fighting the Dutch, and pledging to convert to Catholicism Declaration of Indulgence, 1672 –Extends more religious toleration to the Puritans and Catholics (remember many members of CIIs family are Catholic) Parliament responds w/ Test Act 1672 –Required all officials to take communion in the Anglican Church and swear an oath against Catholicism Parliament splits into two parties wWhigs (suspicious of king, the French & Catholics): primarily noblemen, but also merchant class, middle class wTories (supporters of king): lesser aristocracy & gentry, often poorer classes as well
1/1/ : the beginning of the end of the Stuarts Charles II had no legitimate children James II, Charles younger brother was in line for the throne Parliament and Anglicans were fearful –James II was openly Catholic BUT his heirs at the time were two Protestant daughters: Mary and Anne –Would he bring back Catholicism?
1/1/ James II, 1685 – 1688 Tried to repeal the Test Act Appointed Roman Catholics and dissenteres to positions in the army, universities, & government
1/1/ Glorious Revolution, 1688 June 1688, James wife gave birth to a son – baptized him Catholic Members of Parliament and English society have a solution –Offer the throne to James Protestant daughter Mary and her husband, William III of Orange William and Mary –Arrive in November 1688 –James II fled to France in December –Husband and wife were crowned in April 1689
1/1/ William and Mary William and Mary ruled with tolerance They led jointly between 1689 – 1694 Mary died of smallpox in 1694 William ruled alone from Section 1 ends here
1/1/ Bill of Rights, 1689 contractual relationship btw. king & people enacted by Parliament it states: wno law may be suspended by king wno taxes may be levied or army maintained w/o consent of Parliament wno subject could be arrested & detained w/o legal process
1/1/ Additional Acts Toleration Act, 1689: religious toleration (except for Unitarians and Catholics) BUT Test Act still holds for all officeholders 1701 –Act of Settlement – no Catholic would ever be allowed to inherit the English throne –Royal judges given life tenure – attempt to create a stronger more independent judiciary that would uphold the rule of law 1707 Act of Union: –United Kingdom of Great Britain: England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland
1/1/ Results of Glorious Revolution 1.divine-right of kings no longer valid 2.freely elected Parliament 3.increased strength of Parliament 4.foundation laid for constitutional monarchy 5.end of religious persecution in England – not all religions have the same rights
1/1/ Responses to Revolution Thomas Hobbes ( ) –Leviathan, 1651 – supports idea of absolute rule BECAUSE humans = animalistic, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short THEREFORE the commonwealth must rely on a sovereign ruler and may not rebel Lets look at the frontispiece – What do you see?
1/1/ Responses to Revolution John Locke ( ) –Two Treatises of Government - mutual agreement btw. government and governed Govt. protects inalienable natural rights (life, liberty, property) of individuals Individuals act reasonably toward govt BUT if govt. breaks agreement, people should rebel –Who would make up the government? The landed aristocracy
1/1/ The Last Stuart Anne, Queen –Although she was born 19 children none of them survived SO –It was determined that Sophia of Hanover and her heirs would be the successors to the English throne Sophia was the granddaughter of James I
The Hanoverians George I, –came to power at the end of the War of Spanish Succession Treaty of Utrecht granted 1.legitimacy to Hanoverian right to rule 2.new territories: Gibraltar, Hudsons Bay, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland 3.the right of asiento (English merchants now allowed to ship African slaves into Spanish New World territories) 4.limited trade rights w/ Spanish colonies 1/1/
Triumph of the Whigs Sir Robert Walpole, 1 st English Prime Minister, –refused to be ennobled – Why? –prized civil decorum in politics – Why? 1/1/
Rise of English Dominance See UEQs #9 and create list here: 1/1/