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The World at War “The lights are going out all over Europe:

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Presentation on theme: "The World at War “The lights are going out all over Europe:"— Presentation transcript:

1 1914-1919 The World at War “The lights are going out all over Europe:
we shall not see them lit again in our lifetime.” Sir Edward Grey English Foreign secretary Monday, March 8, 1914 (4 months prior to outbreak of WWI)

2 Preparation for War Largest ever peacetime armies / reserves
German desire for “place in the sun” Recognition of power – like Britain French disagree: Alsace-Lorraine 1871 English disagree: industrial / colonial competition Alliance systems: Designed by Bismarck as prevention of German shut-out first Germany w/Russia / Austria – vs. France Germany’s Kaiser Wilhelm II unable to maintain Bismarck’s complex relationships SO France allies with Russia (odd combo rad/conserv) THEN GB and Russia enter alliance

3 Alliances after 1871 Three Emperors’ League (Dreikaiserbund), 1873
Austro-German Alliance, Alliance of 3 Emperors, Triple Alliance, Germany Russo-French Alliance, Aust.-Hung. Russia Reinsurance Treaty, 1887 (Germany & Russia, secret treaty) 1902 GB allied w/ Japan 1904 = entente cordial btw. GB & Fr. Triple Entente, France Italy GB End of GB’s “splendid isolation”

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5 Technology and Warfare The Great Arms Race !!!!
Weapons were ahead of tactics Machine guns Barbed wire Trench warfare Hand Grenades Heavy artillery Tanks (Somme) Gas Warfare – mustard and nerve gas (see. CfL, 66-67) British munitions plant

6 Technology and Warfare

7 Trench Warfare

8 The War at Sea Heavy battleships – “Dreadnought” Submarines
Competition with these ships began in the 1890s Each nation built heavier and larger ships Submarines Germans = unlimited use sparks US conflict

9 Sinking of the Lusitania
Germany sinks Lusitania – May 7, civilians, including 128 U.S. citizens killed Great Britain and USA force Germany to adopt limited use of submarines Jan Germany returns to unrestricted use of subs – by April 1917 USA enters WWI!

10 The War in the Air German Aircraft US 94th

11 Why War? Balkans: tensions increase –Austria/Russia Crises:
Crisis 1: 1908 Austria annexes Bosnia & Herzegovina Russia intervenes on behalf of the Slavs Germany intervenes and Russia defeated & humiliated Crisis 2: 1st & 2nd Balkan Wars 1912 Balkan League (Se, Bu, Mo, Gr) vs. Ottomans 1913: Gr, Se, Ro, OE vs. Bu over Macedonia & Albania = Serbia blocked; Albania independent Crisis 3: June 28, 1914 Serbian Gavrillo Princip of “Union of Death” / Black Hand kills Archduke Franz Ferdinand – heir to throne!

12 War Begins Austria: must subdue Serbian separatism
July 23, 1914: 10-pt. Ultimatum to Serbia “blank check” from Germany July 25: William II & Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg War declared Austria vs Serbia, July 28; vs. Russia, July 30 Russia & France mobilized – Germany declares war vs. Russia, Aug 1 / vs. Belgium, Aug 3 Von Schlieffen Plan: Germany invades Belgium & violates Belgian Neutrality treaty of 1839 – France declares war, Aug 4 2-front: knock out France through Belgium, then on to Russia – trains troops for two fronts Result Great Britain declares war on Germany, Aug 4 Aug 23 Japan (GB ally) declares war on Germany

13 Western Front

14 Western Front: focus on France
Battle of the Marne: September 6-10, 1914 – Trench Warfare: GB & Fr halt German advance on Paris First Battle of Ypres: Oct. 14, 1914 / Second Battle of Ypres: April 22, 1915 Battle of the Somme, 1916: Allied offensive 8 miles gained ½ men die per inch; “I am staring at a sunlit picture of hell” Siegfried Sassoon Battle of Verdun, 1916: German offensive Third Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele): July stalemate continues – in water! Second Battle of the Marne: March-August, 1918 – last decisive round of battles (w/ involvement of USA)

15 Third Battle of Ypres: Passchendaele

16 Eastern Front Eastern Front & Beyond:
Battle of Tannenburg – Aug. 30, 1914 (Gens. Hindenburg & Ludendorff) Battle of Masurian Lakes – Sept. 9, 1914 Italy 1915 – abandons Germany & joins Allies by declaring war on Austria-Hungary Gallipoli – British & Australians vs. Turks – April 1915 Ottoman Empire: Lawrence of Arabia—in 1917 British Col. T.E. Lawrence encourages Arabic revolts against Ottomans

17 The United States Weighs In
Jan. 1917: Wilson pushes for “peace without victors” America not involved directly until April 6, 1917 Major incident: Zimmerman Tele. 2/17: Germans use US telegraph lines to relay to their embassies in US and Mexico that unrestricted use of submarines will resume

18 The War on Land 1917…little hope… BUT…
1917…Russian Bolshevik Revolution begins March 3, 1918…Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, see pg. 739 Germany can move West BUT…. 1918…US enters the war! – 2nd Battle of the Marne Aug 8, 1918 German General Lundendorff admits defeat

19 Germany defeated… Germany’s defeat…Sept. 1918
October 6, 1918 German gov’t. requests armistice talks Arguments over armistice --- soldiers revolt and est. revolutionary councils (“soviets”) Nov. 9, 1918 Wilhelm II abdicates – flees to Holland Nov. 11, 1918: Friedrich Ebert declares the first German Republic in Weimar (Weimar Republic) and official armistice Kaiser Wilhelm II

20 Difficulty in Making Peace
Victors Great Britain France United States Italy Belgium Portugal Directly Defeated Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Indirectly Defeated Russia

21 Major Personalities Vittorio Orlando: Italy
Georges Clemenceau: France “The Tiger” Vittorio Orlando: Italy David Lloyd George: Great Britain “squeeze the orange until the pips squeak” Woodrow Wilson: USA

22 The Treaty of Versailles: a difficult peace
January 1919 – Paris US, France, Great Britain, (Italy) +23 others No Germany or Russia The fight begins: France: desire to punish Germany Demilitarize Rhineland as buffer state Woodrow Wilson: desire for “Peace without Victors” League of Nations (Jan 25, 1919); “open covenants of peace”, reduction of armaments; self-determination GB: prevent France’s “buffer state”; make Germans pay $$ In the End 5 sep. treaties w/ G, Au, Hu, Bu & OE

23 Results of Treaty of Versailles (& others)
Results: Germany is blamed for the war (Article 231 War Guilt Clause) Army can be no bigger than 100,000 Reparations: for causing war - 32 billion dollars Navy to be no larger than 24 ships – no subs No new developments in air force Demilitarize the Rhine area (but not a buffer state) Lost 27,500 square miles of land League of Nations (Alsace Lorraine, part of Prussia) New nations—imperialism continues Austria/Hungary: Austria / Hungary / Czechoslovakia / Romania / Poland / Yugoslavia “Polish Corridor” to Baltic France: Lebanon / Syria = mandates GB: Iraq / Palestine (w/Jewish Nat'l. home) = mandates Japan: Germany’s holdings in China

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25 Results The beginning of the end of 19th century imperialism…
Total number dead - over 9 million France 1,500,000 Britain 1,000,000 Italy 500,000 US 116,708 Russia 1,700,000 Germany 2,000,000 Austria 1,250,000 A peace…made in quicksand


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