Presentation on theme: "The World at War “The lights are going out all over Europe:"— Presentation transcript:
1 1914-1919 The World at War “The lights are going out all over Europe: we shall not see them lit againin our lifetime.”Sir Edward GreyEnglish Foreign secretaryMonday, March 8, 1914(4 months prior to outbreak of WWI)
2 Preparation for War Largest ever peacetime armies / reserves German desire for “place in the sun”Recognition of power – like BritainFrench disagree: Alsace-Lorraine 1871English disagree: industrial / colonial competitionAlliance systems: Designed by Bismarck as prevention of German shut-outfirst Germany w/Russia / Austria – vs. FranceGermany’s Kaiser Wilhelm II unable to maintain Bismarck’s complex relationshipsSO France allies with Russia (odd combo rad/conserv)THEN GB and Russia enter alliance
3 Alliances after 1871 Three Emperors’ League (Dreikaiserbund), 1873 Austro-German Alliance,Alliance of 3 Emperors,Triple Alliance,GermanyRusso-French Alliance,Aust.-Hung.RussiaReinsurance Treaty, 1887 (Germany & Russia, secret treaty)1902 GB allied w/ Japan1904 = entente cordial btw. GB & Fr.Triple Entente,FranceItalyGBEnd of GB’s “splendid isolation”
5 Technology and Warfare The Great Arms Race !!!! Weapons were ahead of tacticsMachine gunsBarbed wireTrench warfareHand GrenadesHeavy artilleryTanks (Somme)Gas Warfare – mustard and nerve gas (see. CfL, 66-67)British munitions plant
8 The War at Sea Heavy battleships – “Dreadnought” Submarines Competition with these ships began in the 1890sEach nation built heavier and larger shipsSubmarinesGermans = unlimited usesparks US conflict
9 Sinking of the Lusitania Germany sinks Lusitania – May 7, civilians, including 128 U.S. citizens killedGreat Britain and USA force Germany to adopt limited use of submarinesJan Germany returns to unrestricted use of subs – by April 1917 USA enters WWI!
11 Why War? Balkans: tensions increase –Austria/Russia Crises: Crisis 1: 1908 Austria annexes Bosnia & HerzegovinaRussia intervenes on behalf of the SlavsGermany intervenes and Russia defeated & humiliatedCrisis 2: 1st & 2nd Balkan Wars1912 Balkan League (Se, Bu, Mo, Gr) vs. Ottomans1913: Gr, Se, Ro, OE vs. Bu over Macedonia & Albania = Serbia blocked; Albania independentCrisis 3: June 28, 1914 Serbian Gavrillo Princip of “Union of Death” / Black Hand kills Archduke Franz Ferdinand – heir to throne!
12 War Begins Austria: must subdue Serbian separatism July 23, 1914: 10-pt. Ultimatum to Serbia“blank check” from GermanyJuly 25: William II & Theobald von Bethmann-HollwegWar declaredAustria vs Serbia, July 28; vs. Russia, July 30Russia & France mobilized – Germany declares war vs. Russia, Aug 1 / vs. Belgium, Aug 3Von Schlieffen Plan:Germany invades Belgium & violates Belgian Neutrality treaty of 1839 – France declares war, Aug 42-front: knock out France through Belgium, then on to Russia – trains troops for two frontsResultGreat Britain declares war on Germany, Aug 4Aug 23 Japan (GB ally) declares war on Germany
14 Western Front: focus on France Battle of the Marne: September 6-10, 1914 – Trench Warfare: GB & Fr halt German advance on ParisFirst Battle of Ypres: Oct. 14, 1914 / Second Battle of Ypres: April 22, 1915Battle of the Somme, 1916: Allied offensive8 miles gained ½ men die per inch; “I am staring at a sunlit picture of hell” Siegfried SassoonBattle of Verdun, 1916: German offensiveThird Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele): July stalemate continues – in water!Second Battle of the Marne: March-August, 1918 – last decisive round of battles (w/ involvement of USA)
16 Eastern Front Eastern Front & Beyond: Battle of Tannenburg – Aug. 30, 1914 (Gens. Hindenburg & Ludendorff)Battle of Masurian Lakes – Sept. 9, 1914Italy 1915 – abandons Germany & joins Allies by declaring war on Austria-HungaryGallipoli – British & Australians vs. Turks – April 1915Ottoman Empire: Lawrence of Arabia—in 1917 British Col. T.E. Lawrence encourages Arabic revolts against Ottomans
17 The United States Weighs In Jan. 1917: Wilson pushes for “peace without victors”America not involved directly until April 6, 1917Major incident:Zimmerman Tele. 2/17: Germans use US telegraph lines to relay to their embassies in US and Mexico that unrestricted use of submarines will resume
18 The War on Land 1917…little hope… BUT… 1917…Russian Bolshevik Revolution beginsMarch 3, 1918…Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, see pg. 739Germany can move WestBUT….1918…US enters the war! – 2nd Battle of the MarneAug 8, 1918 German General Lundendorff admits defeat
19 Germany defeated… Germany’s defeat…Sept. 1918 October 6, 1918 German gov’t. requests armistice talksArguments over armistice --- soldiers revolt and est. revolutionary councils (“soviets”)Nov. 9, 1918 Wilhelm II abdicates – flees to HollandNov. 11, 1918: Friedrich Ebert declares the first German Republic in Weimar (Weimar Republic) and official armisticeKaiser Wilhelm II
20 Difficulty in Making Peace VictorsGreat BritainFranceUnited StatesItalyBelgiumPortugalDirectly DefeatedGermanyAustria-HungaryOttoman EmpireBulgariaIndirectly DefeatedRussia
21 Major Personalities Vittorio Orlando: Italy Georges Clemenceau: France “The Tiger”Vittorio Orlando: ItalyDavid Lloyd George: Great Britain“squeeze the orange until the pips squeak”Woodrow Wilson: USA
22 The Treaty of Versailles: a difficult peace January 1919 – ParisUS, France, Great Britain, (Italy) +23 othersNo Germany or RussiaThe fight begins:France: desire to punish GermanyDemilitarizeRhineland as buffer stateWoodrow Wilson: desire for “Peace without Victors”League of Nations (Jan 25, 1919); “open covenants of peace”, reduction of armaments; self-determinationGB: prevent France’s “buffer state”; make Germans pay $$In the End5 sep. treaties w/ G, Au, Hu, Bu & OE
23 Results of Treaty of Versailles (& others) Results: Germany is blamed for the war (Article 231 War Guilt Clause)Army can be no bigger than 100,000Reparations: for causing war - 32 billion dollarsNavy to be no larger than 24 ships – no subsNo new developments in air forceDemilitarize the Rhine area (but not a buffer state)Lost 27,500 square miles of land League of Nations (Alsace Lorraine, part of Prussia)New nations—imperialism continuesAustria/Hungary:Austria / Hungary / Czechoslovakia / Romania / Poland / Yugoslavia“Polish Corridor” to BalticFrance: Lebanon / Syria = mandatesGB: Iraq / Palestine (w/Jewish Nat'l. home) = mandatesJapan: Germany’s holdings in China
25 Results The beginning of the end of 19th century imperialism… Total number dead - over 9 millionFrance 1,500,000 Britain 1,000,000Italy 500,000 US 116,708Russia 1,700,000 Germany 2,000,000Austria 1,250,000A peace…made in quicksand
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