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Ahmed W. Moustafa Lecture (1)

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1 Ahmed W. Moustafa Lecture (1)
Composite Materials Ahmed W. Moustafa Lecture (1)

2 COMPOSITE MATERIALS Technology and Classification of Composite Materials Metal Matrix Composites Ceramic Matrix Composites Polymer Matrix Composites Guide to Processing Composite Materials

3 Classification Scheme for Composite Materials
Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) ‑ mixtures of ceramics and metals, such as cemented carbides and other cermets Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) ‑ Al2O3 and SiC imbedded with fibers to improve properties, especially in high temperature applications The least common composite matrix Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) ‑ thermosetting resins are widely used in PMCs Examples: epoxy and polyester with fiber reinforcement, and phenolic with powders

4 The Reinforcing Phase (Secondary Phase)
Function is to reinforce the primary phase Imbedded phase is most commonly one of the following shapes: Fibers Particles Flakes In addition, the secondary phase can take the form of an infiltrated phase in a skeletal or porous matrix Example: a powder metallurgy part infiltrated with polymer

5 Figure 9.1 ‑ Possible physical shapes of imbedded phases in composite materials: (a) fiber, (b) particle, and (c) flake

6 Fibers Filaments of reinforcing material, usually circular in cross‑section Diameters range from less than mm to about 0.13 mm, depending on material Filaments provide greatest opportunity for strength enhancement of composites The filament form of most materials is significantly stronger than the bulk form As diameter is reduced, the material becomes oriented in the fiber axis direction and probability of defects in the structure decreases significantly

7 Continuous vs. Discontinuous Fibers
Continuous fibers - very long; in theory, they offer a continuous path by which a load can be carried by the composite part Discontinuous fibers (chopped sections of continuous fibers) - short lengths (L/D = roughly 100) Important type of discontinuous fiber are whiskers ‑ hair-like single crystals with diameters down to about mm ( in.) with very high strength

8 Fiber Orientation – Three Cases
One‑dimensional reinforcement, in which maximum strength and stiffness are obtained in the direction of the fiber Planar reinforcement, in some cases in the form of a two‑dimensional woven fabric Random or three‑dimensional in which the composite material tends to possess isotropic properties

9 Figure 9.3 ‑ Fiber orientation in composite materials:
(a) one‑dimensional, continuous fibers; (b) planar, continuous fibers in the form of a woven fabric; and (c) random, discontinuous fibers

10 Materials for Fibers Fiber materials in fiber‑reinforced composites:
Glass – most widely used filament Carbon – high elastic modulus Boron – very high elastic modulus Polymers - Kevlar Ceramics – SiC and Al2O3 Metals - steel The most important commercial use of fibers is in polymer composites

11 Particles and Flakes A second common shape of imbedded phase is particulate, ranging in size from microscopic to macroscopic Flakes are basically two‑dimensional particles ‑ small flat platelets The distribution of particles in the composite matrix is random, and therefore strength and other properties of the composite material are usually isotropic Strengthening mechanism depends on particle size

12 The Interface There is always an interface between constituent phases in a composite material For the composite to operate effectively, the phases must bond where they join at the interface Figure 9.4 ‑ Interfaces between phases in a composite material: (a) direct bonding between primary and secondary phases

13 Interphase In some cases, a third ingredient must be added to achieve bonding of primary and secondary phases Called an interphase, this third ingredient can be thought of as an adhesive Figure 9.4 ‑ Interfaces between phases: (b) addition of a third ingredient to bond the primary phases and form an interphase

14 Interphase consisting of a solution of primary and
Another Interphase Interphase consisting of a solution of primary and secondary phases Figure 9.4 ‑ Interfaces and interphases between phases in a composite material: (c) formation of an interphase by solution of the primary and secondary phases at their boundary

15 Properties of Composite Materials
In selecting a composite material, an optimum combination of properties is usually sought, rather than one particular property Example: fuselage and wings of an aircraft must be lightweight and be strong, stiff, and tough Several fiber‑reinforced polymers possess this combination of properties Example: natural rubber alone is relatively weak Adding significant amounts of carbon black to NR increases its strength dramatically

16 Properties are Determined by Three Factors:
The materials used as component phases in the composite The geometric shapes of the constituents and resulting structure of the composite system The manner in which the phases interact with one another

17 Figure 9.5 ‑ (a) Model of a fiber‑reinforced composite material showing direction in which elastic modulus is being estimated by the rule of mixtures (b) Stress‑strain relationships for the composite material and its constituents. The fiber is stiff but brittle, while the matrix (commonly a polymer) is soft but ductile.

18 Figure 9.6 ‑ Variation in elastic modulus and tensile strength as a function of direction of measurement relative to longitudinal axis of carbon fiber‑reinforced epoxy composite

19 Fibers Illustrate Importance of Geometric Shape
Most materials have tensile strengths several times greater as fibers than in bulk By imbedding the fibers in a polymer matrix, a composite material is obtained that avoids the problems of fibers but utilizes their strengths The matrix provides the bulk shape to protect the fiber surfaces and resist buckling When a load is applied, the low‑strength matrix deforms and distributes the stress to the high‑strength fibers

20 Other Composite Structures
Laminar composite structure – conventional Sandwich structure Honeycomb sandwich structure

21 Laminar Composite Structure
Two or more layers bonded together in an integral piece Example: plywood in which layers are the same wood, but grains are oriented differently to increase overall strength of the laminated piece Figure 9.7 ‑ Laminar composite structures: (a) conventional laminar structure

22 Sandwich Structure – Foam Core
Consists of a relatively thick core of low density foam bonded on both faces to thin sheets of a different material Figure 9.7 ‑ Laminar composite structures: (b) sandwich structure using foam core

23 Sandwich Structure – Honeycomb Core
An alternative to foam core Either foam or honeycomb achieves high strength‑to‑weight and stiffness‑to‑weight ratios Figure 9.7 ‑ Laminar composite structures: (c) sandwich structure using honeycomb core

24 Other Laminar Composite Structures
Automotive tires - consists of multiple layers bonded together FRPs - multi‑layered fiber‑reinforced plastic panels for aircraft, automobile body panels, boat hulls Printed circuit boards - layers of reinforced plastic and copper for electrical conductivity and insulation Snow skis - composite structures consisting of layers of metals, particle board, and phenolic plastic Windshield glass - two layers of glass on either side of a sheet of tough plastic

25 Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs)
A metal matrix reinforced by a second phase Reinforcing phases: Particles of ceramic (these MMCs are commonly called cermets) Fibers of various materials: other metals, ceramics, carbon, and boron

26 Cermets MMC with ceramic contained in a metallic matrix
The ceramic often dominates the mixture, sometimes up to 96% by volume Bonding can be enhanced by slight solubility between phases at elevated temperatures used in processing Cermets can be subdivided into Cemented carbides – most common Oxide‑based cermets – less common

27 Cemented Carbides One or more carbide compounds bonded in a metallic matrix The term cermet is not used for all of these materials, even though it is technically correct Common cemented carbides are based on tungsten carbide (WC), titanium carbide (TiC), and chromium carbide (Cr3C2) Tantalum carbide (TaC) and others are less common Metallic binders: usually cobalt (Co) or nickel (Ni)

28 Figure 9.8 ‑ Photomicrograph (about 1500X) of cemented carbide with 85% WC and 15% Co (photo courtesy of Kennametal Inc.)

29 Figure 9.9 ‑ Typical plot of hardness and transverse rupture strength as a function of cobalt content

30 Applications of Cemented Carbides
Tungsten carbide cermets (Co binder) - cutting tools are most common; other: wire drawing dies, rock drilling bits and other mining tools, dies for powder metallurgy, indenters for hardness testers Titanium carbide cermets (Ni binder) - high temperature applications such as gas‑turbine nozzle vanes, valve seats, thermocouple protection tubes, torch tips, cutting tools for steels Chromium carbides cermets (Ni binder) - gage blocks, valve liners, spray nozzles, bearing seal rings

31 Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs)
A ceramic primary phase imbedded with a secondary phase, which usually consists of fibers Attractive properties of ceramics: high stiffness, hardness, hot hardness, and compressive strength; and relatively low density Weaknesses of ceramics: low toughness and bulk tensile strength, susceptibility to thermal cracking CMCs represent an attempt to retain the desirable properties of ceramics while compensating for their weaknesses

32 Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs)
A polymer primary phase in which a secondary phase is imbedded as fibers, particles, or flakes Commercially, PMCs are more important than MMCs or CMCs Examples: most plastic molding compounds, rubber reinforced with carbon black, and fiber‑reinforced polymers (FRPs) FRPs are most closely identified with the term composite

33 Fiber‑Reinforced Polymers (FRPs)
A PMC consisting of a polymer matrix imbedded with high‑strength fibers Polymer matrix materials: Usually a thermosetting (TS) plastic such as unsaturated polyester or epoxy Can also be thermoplastic (TP), such as nylons (polyamides), polycarbonate, polystyrene, and polyvinylchloride Fiber reinforcement is widely used in rubber products such as tires and conveyor belts

34 Fibers in PMCs Various forms: discontinuous (chopped), continuous, or woven as a fabric Principal fiber materials in FRPs are glass, carbon, and Kevlar 49 Less common fibers include boron, SiC, and Al2O3, and steel Glass (in particular E‑glass) is the most common fiber material in today's FRPs; its use to reinforce plastics dates from around 1920

35 Common FRP Structure Most widely used form of FRP is a laminar structure, made by stacking and bonding thin layers of fiber and polymer until desired thickness is obtained By varying fiber orientation among layers, a specified level of anisotropy in properties can be achieved in the laminate Applications: parts of thin cross‑section, such as aircraft wing and fuselage sections, automobile and truck body panels, and boat hulls

36 FRP Properties High strength‑to‑weight and modulus‑to‑weight ratios
Low specific gravity - a typical FRP weighs only about 1/5 as much as steel; yet, strength and modulus are comparable in fiber direction Good fatigue strength Good corrosion resistance, although polymers are soluble in various chemicals Low thermal expansion - for many FRPs, leading to good dimensional stability Significant anisotropy in properties

37 FRP Applications Aerospace – much of the structural weight of todays airplanes and helicopters consist of advanced FRPs Automotive – somebody panels for cars and truck cabs Continued use of low-carbon sheet steel in cars is evidence of its low cost and ease of processing Sports and recreation Fiberglass reinforced plastic has been used for boat hulls since the 1940s Fishing rods, tennis rackets, golf club shafts, helmets, skis, bows and arrows.

38 Figure 9.11 ‑ Composite materials in the Boeing 757
(courtesy of Boeing Commercial Airplane Group)

39 Other Polymer Matrix Composites
In addition to FRPs, other PMCs contain particles, flakes, and short fibers as the secondary phase Called fillers when used in molding compounds Two categories: Reinforcing fillers – used to strengthen or otherwise improve mechanical properties Examples: wood flour in phenolic and amino resins; and carbon black in rubber Extenders – used to increase bulk and reduce cost per unit weight, but little or no effect on mechanical properties

40 Guide to Processing Composite Materials
The two phases are typically produced separately before being combined into the composite part Processing techniques to fabricate MMC and CMC components are similar to those used for powdered metals and ceramics Molding processes are commonly used for PMCs with particles and chopped fibers Specialized processes have been developed for FRPs

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