Presentation on theme: "Schedule Today: Outline Make sure that your thesis is written before you begin your outline Thursday Mar. 25 Interview/Survey report; 15 note cards; MLA."— Presentation transcript:
1ScheduleToday: Outline Make sure that your thesis is written before you begin your outlineThursday Mar. 25 Interview/Survey report; 15 note cards; MLA Chapter 3: MechanicsThursday Apr note cards due; How to create a power point presentationApril 6: Rough Draft due. Bring 3 copies to class for peer review with Peer Review sheet for each 2 copies. Upload to Safe Assignment on Black Board (instructions to come)April 6, 8, 13: Peer Review. Meet in Michener Library 2nd floor.April 20, 22, 25, 27 Finals Week Power Point Presentations minutes max.
2Strategies for Developing Argument Inductive ReasoningDeductive ReasoningToulmin ModelRogearian Argument
3Logic Classical Greek: “the word” or “what is spoken” Today: thought or reasonThe study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments based on valid and false inferences to allow the thinker to determine logical arguments as opposed to flawed arguments
4What is Argument?Intellectual self-assertion designed to secure the consideration and respect of peersReasonLogicSupporting evidence
5AudienceA clear sense of audience helps to develop a strong argument Allows you to anticipate the opposing view objections your audience will likely have Imagine a skeptical audience to anticipate opposing view and to offer counter arguments in order to build a stronger argument
6Careful Audience Analysis Who?What do they already know about the topic?What to they need to know?What views or opinions do they already have?What is their attitude toward the topic?What is my purpose in presenting my thesis?What do I want my audience to do or think after they have read my essay? (call to action in your paper)
7What is your role as a writer? Advocate?Story Teller?Reporter?Instructor?One or all of these roles
8To Develop a Strong Argument, Discover the Controversy 1. List the reason why you believe the way you do 2. Rate the your reasons from the most important to the least; consider, too, the degree to which you audience will be impressed 3. Make a second list of reason why audience might disagree with you 4. Make a third list that answers or refutes your audience’s reasons
9ConcessionWhat happens if you find a opposing reason that you agree with or one that you cannot answer? Concede the point. Offering concession indicates that you have reviewed both sides of the argument, that you are trying to be fair-minded. Concession will help you bridge the gap between you and your opposition, making it easier to reach an agreement. Don’t concede too much
10MoreUse good, concrete examples that your audience will understand and can relate toMake abstract concepts concrete with examplesBe truthful
11One More: Define Key Terms It is important to isolate terms that will need definition so that both sides have an understanding of essential ideasJargon and terminology unique or specific to subjectThink of what audience needs to knowDefining key terms will help control the argument and eliminate misunderstandings
12Inductive Reasoning: General to the Specific Assemble the evidence and facts, then draw a conclusion based on the evidenceKey: Evidence only points to a conclusion that is likely to be true
13A well-structured inductive essay gradually expands as it offers evidence so that the conclusion is supported by numerous details. Often writers organize their argument by presenting the weakest point first, the least important ideas first and building to the most important evidence and main points, saving them for the end to leave the readers with the most powerful evidence, the strongest point to the end for the greatest impact.
14How Use Synonyms Make Comparisons Use contrast-showing how your definition differs from commonly accepted ones or opposing view’sDefine a term by telling what it is notGive examples
15Deductive Reasoning: The Specific to the General Evidence is secondary, unlike inductive reasoning that relies on evidenceDepends on a commonly held value or belief that his audience will share
16State your argumentAll children deserve the best education, don’t they?All Americans deserve adequate and affordable health care, don’t they?
17How to set up a deductive argument You commonly accepted value becomes a premiseA good premise must meet two requirements:It is general enough so that the audience will accept it, establishing a common ground with your audienceMust be specific enough to prepare the way for your argumentKeep in mind that your premise should inspire widespread agreement.
18CautionsDo not make the mistake of confusing generally accepted truths with privately held opinions Do not expect or assume that your audience will readily accept your premise You do need to offer evidence an proof, but the strength of your argument relies on the strength of your premise, that it is universally true and acceptable
19Developing the Deductive Argument: Work Backwards 3. Write down the conclusion that you expect to reach2. Ask yourself why you believe your#3 your conclusion, which will give you reasons that you can group together as statement 21. After you have looked at the conclusion and the reason for the conclusion that seem to justify the conclusion, you can ask what you have left out. Fill in the blanks. Assuming that your audience will agree with you, you have your premise or your thesisIn the end, you will have a policy making thesis, or a “’should” thesis. Somebody should do something.
20The key to a good deductive argument depends on what your audience is willing to accept
21Test the strength of your argument: The Syllogism A 3 part argument in which the conclusion rests upon tow premises: A major premise and 2 minor premises=the conclusion
22Understanding how logic works Valid ReasoningFaulty ReasoningMajor premise: All people have hearts Minor premise: John is a person Conclusion: Therefore, John has a heartMajor premise: All woman like to cook Minor Premise: Elizabeth is a woman Conclusion: Therefore, Elizabeth likes to cook.
23Test your logic: Major Premise: All Pit Bulls are mean. Is this syllogism logical?Is this any better?Major Premise: All Pit Bulls are mean.Minor Premise: Jake is a bit bull.Conclusion: Therefore Jake is mean.Major Premise: Pit Bulls carry the reputation to be mean.Minor Premise: Jake is a pit bull.Therefore Jake has a reputation to be mean.
24Developing your deductive argument: planning/thinking stage 3. Draw your conclusion2. Develop your reasons1. State your premise (the right or value that you wish to deduce)3. Public utilities should not burn coal that is high in sulfur content3. Burning high sulfur coal causes acid rain that is killing American forests, endangering wildlife, and spoiling fishing.1. Somebody must do something
25Here Comes Your ThesisBecause acid rain, which is principally caused by burning high sulfur coal, is slowly killing American forests, endangering wildlife, and polluting lakes, rivers, and streams, the Federal Government should restrict the use of high sulfur coal.RevisedThe Federal Government should restrict the use of high sulfur coal because it damages the environment.
26Final steps: Working your way to the outline 1. Federal government has the responsibility to protect the quality of American air, soil and water—the environment.2. Acid rain, which is caused principally by burning high sulfur coal isA. slowly killing American forestB. endangering wildlifeC. polluting lakes, rivers, and streams3. Therefore, the federal government should restrict the use of high sulfur coal
27The OutlineI. Introduction: Your favorite fishing sp II. Explain the problem: High sulfur coal damages the environment A. Slowly killing American forests B. Endangering wildlife C. Polluting lakes, rivers, and streams III. Opposing View A. Cheap fuel B. Creates jobs IV. Refute Opposing View V. Offer concession VI. Provide a clear, thoughtful, firm conclusion, call for action
28ConclusionIf major and minor premises are true, then conclusion should be true.Major and minor premise share a common term while a syllogism may be valid and looks to be true it can also be untrue when it rests on premise that can be easily disputed: Because Elizabeth is a woman she should like to cook, but does she?Major premise must always evoke wide spread agreement
29Summary Inductive Reasoning: Deductive Reasoning Ask a question, develop a hypothosisPresent evidence until you can draw a reasonable conclusionMake the inductive LeapDeductive ReasoningRelies on a commonly held value that you share with your audienceRecognize the difference between a commonly held value and your opinion (or the opposing view)Evidence is necessary, but remember that it is secondary to the commonly held value that shapes your premise
30LogicInductive and Deductive reason give you a plan for developing logical argumentA test for valid and true argument
31Toulmin’s ModelLogic is more concerned with probability than certainty. He structured a 3 part model for argument:CLAIM: the equivalent of the conclusion or whatever the writer wants to prove (your thesis)DATA: the information or evidence that a writer offers to support the claimWARRANT: a general statement that establishes a trustworthy relationship between the data and the claim
32Toulmin says:In any argument the claim and data will be explicit, but can also be implied, especially when the writer feels the audience will agree.
33Toulmin’s Logic vs. Deductive Syllogism Claim: Raymond is an American citizenData: Raymond was born in Puerto RicoWarrant: Anyone born in Puerto Rico is an American citizenThe SyllogismMajor Premise: Any born in Puerto Rico is an American citizenMinor Premise: Raymond was born in Puerto RicoConclusion: Therefore Raymond is an American Citizen
34Explanation:Toulmin’s model secures the argument when we consider the possibilities that the syllogism excludes:Raymond was born prematurely when his French parents were on vacation in Puerto Rico—orRaymond, a Russian, defected to Puerto and is given asylum
35QualifiersSyllogism leads to a conclusion that is necessarily true. Toulim believes that syllogism is ill-suited for working to a conclusion that is probably true. He agued that there was a need for a working logic which is easier to apply in rhetorical situations, so he developed a strategy in which the writer/speaker can use qualifiers to develop an argument: probably, presumably, generally.
36Syllogism revised: Claim: Raymond is probably an American citizen Data: Raymond was born in Puerto RicoWarrant: Anyone born in Puerto Rico is entitled to American citizenship
37Finally Toulmin: Claim can come at point in the essay as appropriate Inductive Reasoning: at the beginningDeductive Reasoning: at the end
38Rogerian Argument Problem Solving Highly emotional and controversial topicsSeeks to establish a common ground with audienceAssumes a non adversarial position by convincing reader that both writer and reader affected by the same problemNo pro/con sideIntroduction: Open essay in a manner that does not demand one side or the other, avoids argument
39CompromiseNext: The idea is to develop the problem in a way that the reader will begin to see things the writer’s way, paving the way for compromiseMust represent the reader’s position accuratelyNext: The writer presents his/her point of view of the problem clearly and accuratelyUse clear, neutral languageUse sound evidenceConclude not by asking reader to do something, rather by showing the reader how he/she will benefit from writer’s solutionDownplays adversarial and emotional argument; that all sides will benefit from the solution, seeking common groundWriter must understand his/her audience for audience’s point of view must be stated clearly, accurately, and fairly
40Tips: Use one or all of these strategies Carefully structure your argument by writing a good, strong thesisCraft strong topic sentences for each paragraph to show relationships between ideasUse good transitions to create unity and coherence for your essayHave a good outline to create good organization
41Thanks to: Miller, Robert K. The Informed Argument. Part 1. 1989 Writing AT CSU. 0man/com5e1.cfm