Presentation on theme: "Schedule Today: Outline Make sure that your thesis is written before you begin your outline Thursday Mar. 25 Interview/Survey report; 15 note cards;"— Presentation transcript:
Schedule Today: Outline Make sure that your thesis is written before you begin your outline Thursday Mar. 25 Interview/Survey report; 15 note cards; MLA Chapter 3: Mechanics Thursday Apr note cards due; How to create a power point presentation April 6: Rough Draft due. Bring 3 copies to class for peer review with Peer Review sheet for each 2 copies. Upload to Safe Assignment on Black Board (instructions to come) April 6, 8, 13: Peer Review. Meet in Michener Library 2 nd floor. April 20, 22, 25, 27 Finals Week Power Point Presentations minutes max.
Inductive Reasoning Deductive Reasoning Toulmin Model Rogearian Argument Strategies for Developing Argument
Logic Classical Greek: “the word” or “what is spoken” Today: thought or reason The study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments based on valid and false inferences to allow the thinker to determine logical arguments as opposed to flawed arguments
What is Argument? Intellectual self-assertion designed to secure the consideration and respect of peers Reason Logic Supporting evidence
Audience A clear sense of audience helps to develop a strong argument Allows you to anticipate the opposing view objections your audience will likely have Imagine a skeptical audience to anticipate opposing view and to offer counter arguments in order to build a stronger argument
Careful Audience Analysis Who? What do they already know about the topic? What to they need to know? What views or opinions do they already have? What is their attitude toward the topic? What is my purpose in presenting my thesis? What do I want my audience to do or think after they have read my essay? (call to action in your paper)
What is your role as a writer? Advocate? Story Teller? Reporter? Instructor? One or all of these roles
To Develop a Strong Argument, Discover the Controversy 1. List the reason why you believe the way you do 2. Rate the your reasons from the most important to the least; consider, too, the degree to which you audience will be impressed 3. Make a second list of reason why audience might disagree with you 4. Make a third list that answers or refutes your audience’s reasons
Concession What happens if you find a opposing reason that you agree with or one that you cannot answer? Concede the point. Offering concession indicates that you have reviewed both sides of the argument, that you are trying to be fair-minded. Concession will help you bridge the gap between you and your opposition, making it easier to reach an agreement. Don’t concede too much
More Use good, concrete examples that your audience will understand and can relate to Make abstract concepts concrete with examples Be truthful
One More: Define Key Terms It is important to isolate terms that will need definition so that both sides have an understanding of essential ideas Jargon and terminology unique or specific to subject Think of what audience needs to know Defining key terms will help control the argument and eliminate misunderstandings
Inductive Reasoning: General to the Specific General to the specific Assemble the evidence and facts, then draw a conclusion based on the evidence Key: Evidence only points to a conclusion that is likely to be true
A well-structured inductive essay gradually expands as it offers evidence so that the conclusion is supported by numerous details. Often writers organize their argument by presenting the weakest point first, the least important ideas first and building to the most important evidence and main points, saving them for the end to leave the readers with the most powerful evidence, the strongest point to the end for the greatest impact.
How Use Synonyms Make Comparisons Use contrast-showing how your definition differs from commonly accepted ones or opposing view’s Define a term by telling what it is not Give examples
Deductive Reasoning: The Specific to the General Evidence is secondary, unlike inductive reasoning that relies on evidence Depends on a commonly held value or belief that his audience will share
State your argument All children deserve the best education, don’t they? All Americans deserve adequate and affordable health care, don’t they?
How to set up a deductive argument You commonly accepted value becomes a premise A good premise must meet two requirements: It is general enough so that the audience will accept it, establishing a common ground with your audience Must be specific enough to prepare the way for your argument Keep in mind that your premise should inspire widespread agreement.
Cautions Do not make the mistake of confusing generally accepted truths with privately held opinions Do not expect or assume that your audience will readily accept your premise You do need to offer evidence an proof, but the strength of your argument relies on the strength of your premise, that it is universally true and acceptable
Developing the Deductive Argument: Work Backwards 3. Write down the conclusion that you expect to reach 2. Ask yourself why you believe your#3 your conclusion, which will give you reasons that you can group together as statement 2 1. After you have looked at the conclusion and the reason for the conclusion that seem to justify the conclusion, you can ask what you have left out. Fill in the blanks. Assuming that your audience will agree with you, you have your premise or your thesis In the end, you will have a policy making thesis, or a “’should” thesis. Somebody should do something.
The key to a good deductive argument depends on what your audience is willing to accept
Test the strength of your argument: The Syllogism A 3 part argument in which the conclusion rests upon tow premises: A major premise and 2 minor premises=the conclusion
Understanding how logic works Major premise: All people have hearts Minor premise: John is a person Conclusion: Therefore, John has a heart Major premise: All woman like to cook Minor Premise: Elizabeth is a woman Conclusion: Therefore, Elizabeth likes to cook. Valid ReasoningFaulty Reasoning
Test your logic: Major Premise: All Pit Bulls are mean. Minor Premise: Jake is a bit bull. Conclusion: Therefore Jake is mean. Major Premise: Pit Bulls carry the reputation to be mean. Minor Premise: Jake is a pit bull. Therefore Jake has a reputation to be mean. Is this syllogism logical?Is this any better?
Developing your deductive argument: planning/thinking stage 3. Draw your conclusion 2. Develop your reasons 1. State your premise (the right or value that you wish to deduce) 3. Public utilities should not burn coal that is high in sulfur content 3. Burning high sulfur coal causes acid rain that is killing American forests, endangering wildlife, and spoiling fishing. 1. Somebody must do something
Here Comes Your Thesis Because acid rain, which is principally caused by burning high sulfur coal, is slowly killing American forests, endangering wildlife, and polluting lakes, rivers, and streams, the Federal Government should restrict the use of high sulfur coal. Revised The Federal Government should restrict the use of high sulfur coal because it damages the environment.
Final steps: Working your way to the outline 1. Federal government has the responsibility to protect the quality of American air, soil and water—the environment. 2. Acid rain, which is caused principally by burning high sulfur coal is A. slowly killing American forest B. endangering wildlife C. polluting lakes, rivers, and streams 3. Therefore, the federal government should restrict the use of high sulfur coal
The Outline I. Introduction: Your favorite fishing sp II. Explain the problem: High sulfur coal damages the environment A. Slowly killing American forests B. Endangering wildlife C. Polluting lakes, rivers, and streams III. Opposing View A. Cheap fuel B. Creates jobs IV. Refute Opposing View V. Offer concession VI. Provide a clear, thoughtful, firm conclusion, call for action
Conclusion If major and minor premises are true, then conclusion should be true. Major and minor premise share a common term while a syllogism may be valid and looks to be true it can also be untrue when it rests on premise that can be easily disputed: Because Elizabeth is a woman she should like to cook, but does she? Major premise must always evoke wide spread agreement
Summary Inductive Reasoning: Ask a question, develop a hypothosis Present evidence until you can draw a reasonable conclusion Make the inductive Leap Deductive Reasoning Relies on a commonly held value that you share with your audience Recognize the difference between a commonly held value and your opinion (or the opposing view) Evidence is necessary, but remember that it is secondary to the commonly held value that shapes your premise
Logic Inductive and Deductive reason give you a plan for developing logical argument A test for valid and true argument
Toulmin’s Model Logic is more concerned with probability than certainty. He structured a 3 part model for argument: CLAIM: the equivalent of the conclusion or whatever the writer wants to prove (your thesis) DATA: the information or evidence that a writer offers to support the claim WARRANT: a general statement that establishes a trustworthy relationship between the data and the claim
Toulmin says: In any argument the claim and data will be explicit, but can also be implied, especially when the writer feels the audience will agree.
Toulmin’s Logic vs. Deductive Syllogism Claim: Raymond is an American citizen Data: Raymond was born in Puerto Rico Warrant: Anyone born in Puerto Rico is an American citizen The Syllogism Major Premise: Any born in Puerto Rico is an American citizen Minor Premise: Raymond was born in Puerto Rico Conclusion: Therefore Raymond is an American Citizen
Explanation: Toulmin’s model secures the argument when we consider the possibilities that the syllogism excludes: Raymond was born prematurely when his French parents were on vacation in Puerto Rico—or Raymond, a Russian, defected to Puerto and is given asylum
Qualifiers Syllogism leads to a conclusion that is necessarily true. Toulim believes that syllogism is ill-suited for working to a conclusion that is probably true. He agued that there was a need for a working logic which is easier to apply in rhetorical situations, so he developed a strategy in which the writer/speaker can use qualifiers to develop an argument: probably, presumably, generally.
Syllogism revised: Claim: Raymond is probably an American citizen Data: Raymond was born in Puerto Rico Warrant: Anyone born in Puerto Rico is entitled to American citizenship
Finally Toulmin: Claim can come at point in the essay as appropriate Inductive Reasoning: at the beginning Deductive Reasoning: at the end
Rogerian Argument Problem Solving Highly emotional and controversial topics Seeks to establish a common ground with audience Assumes a non adversarial position by convincing reader that both writer and reader affected by the same problem No pro/con side Introduction: Open essay in a manner that does not demand one side or the other, avoids argument
Compromise Next: The idea is to develop the problem in a way that the reader will begin to see things the writer’s way, paving the way for compromise Must represent the reader’s position accurately Next: The writer presents his/her point of view of the problem clearly and accurately Use clear, neutral language Use sound evidence Conclude not by asking reader to do something, rather by showing the reader how he/she will benefit from writer’s solution Downplays adversarial and emotional argument; that all sides will benefit from the solution, seeking common ground Writer must understand his/her audience for audience’s point of view must be stated clearly, accurately, and fairly
Tips: Use one or all of these strategies Carefully structure your argument by writing a good, strong thesis Craft strong topic sentences for each paragraph to show relationships between ideas Use good transitions to create unity and coherence for your essay Have a good outline to create good organization
Thanks to: Miller, Robert K. The Informed Argument. Part Writing AT CSU. 0man/com5e1.cfm