3THE COMPANY’S MARKETING ENVIRONMENT All Companies operate within a marketing environment. This environment consists of all the factors and forces that affect the company’s ability to transact effectively with its target market.This environment can be divided into :(A) Micro-environment(B) Macro-environment
4(A) MICRO-ENVIRONMENT The microenvironment consists of the forces close to the company that affects its ability to serve its customers. It consists of following components :(i) Company’s internal environment (Company’s other departments)(ii) Suppliers(iii) Marketing Intermediaries(iv) Customers(v) Competitors(vi) Publics
5MICRO-ENVIRONMENT Company Marketing Intermediaries Suppliers CustomersCompetitorsPublics
7(ii) SUPPLIERSSuppliers are an important link in the company’s overall customer “value delivery system”.They provide the resources needed by the company to provide its goods and services.Supplier developments can easily affect marketing.Marketing managers must watch supply availability and must also monitor the price trends of their key inputs.(Rising supply costs may force price increases that can harm the company’s sales volume).
8(iii) MARKETING INTERMEDIARIES Marketing intermediaries are firms that aid the company in promoting, selling, and distributing its goods to the final buyers.They include middlemen, physical distribution firms, marketing service agencies and financial intermediaries.
9MARKETING INTERMEDIARIES Middlemen- are business firms that help the company in finding customers and/or close sales with them. Middlemen are of two types :Agent Middlemen – find customers and negotiate contracts but do not take title to merchandize, e.g. brokers, representatives.Merchant Middlemen – Buy, take title to the goods, and resell merchandize, e.g. wholesalers, retailers etc.
10MARKETING INTERMEDIARIES Physical Distribution Firms - Assist the co. in stocking and moving goods from their original locations to their destinations,e.g. ware housing firms, transportation firms.
11MARKETING INTERMEDIARIES Marketing Service Agencies – Assist the company in promoting its products to the right markets, e.g. marketing research firms, advertising agencies, marketing consultancy firms etc.
12MARKETING INTERMEDIARIES Financial Intermediaries – Help finance transactions or insure against the risks associated with the buying and selling of goods, e.g. banks, credit companies, insurance companies etc.
14(v) COMPETITORSTo be successful, a company must provide greater customer value and satisfaction than its competitors (Marketing Concept).Marketers must do more than simply adapt to the needs of target customers. They also must gain strategic advantage by positioning their offerings strongly against competitors’ offerings in the minds of consumers.
15COMPETITORS Four basic competitions faced by a company : monopolisticCompetitionOligo polyPerfect competitionCompanymonopolyCompetition
16CHARECTERISTICSPERFECTMONOPOLISTICOLIOPOLISTICMONOPOLYNumber of competitorsMANYFEW TO MANYVERY FEWNO DIRECT COMPETITERSimilarity of goods/services offered by competing firmsSAMESeemingly different but may be quite similarSimilar or differentNo directly competing productsIndividual firm's control over priceNone (set by the market)SomeREGULATED BY GOVTExamplesWATER PACKETAGRI PRODUCTSHAMPOOOILAIROPLANEAUTOMOBOILRAILWAY
17(vi) PUBLICSAny group that has an actual or potential interest in or impact on an organization’s ability to achieve its objectives.Citizen Action PublicGovt. PublicLocal PublicMedia PublicGeneral PublicFinancial PublicInternal PublicCo.
18PUBLICS Financial Publics (Banks, investment houses and stock holders) Media Publics (Newspapers, magazines, and radio & T.V. stations)Govt. Publics (Rules & regulations related to safety, truth in advertising and other matters)Citizen-action Publics (Consumer organizations, environmental groups, minority groups etc.)
19PUBLICSLocal Publics (Neighborhood residents and community organizations)General Publics (General public’s overall attitude toward co.’s products and activities)Internal Publics (Company’s workers, managers, volunteers and the board of directors)
20(B) MACRO-ENVIRONMENT Natural ForcesTechnological ForcesEconomic ForcesPolitical ForcesDemographic ForcesCompanyCultural Forces“ It is useless to tell a river to stop running; the best thing is to learn how to swim in the direction it is flowing”
21MACRO-ENVIRONMENTAn organization’s success depends on the ability of its executives to manage its marketing system in relation to its external environment. These forces (macro-environmental forces) are uncontrollable and pose opportunities and create threats for the company.TODAY YOU HAVE TO RUN FASTER TO STAY IN THE SAME PLACE.
22INDIAN MARKETING ENVIRONMENT Few Examples…………How some of the industry leaders lost their competitive advantage because they failed to perceive the environmental changes….?The decade of 1980s saw many of the industry titans losing their competitive advantage to relatively new entrants……..(Contd..)
23Few Examples…………Hindustan Motors and Premier Automobiles lost their pre-eminent position in the Indian market to Maruti Udyog’s Maruti 800.Mahindra and Mahindra were shaken up by Maruti Udyog’s Gypsy.Titan watches heralded a new era of watches and shook the giant HMT.Hindustan Levers Surf was cornered by Nirma.
24Few Examples…………Television giants like NELCO,Crown, Weston, Salora,Bush etc. lost out to absolutely new firms and brands like Onida and Videocon.Videocon launched its washing machine in1998 and suddenly thereafter, one saw an explosion in the market with about half-a-dozen brands.
25HOW TO ANALYZE THE CASE STUDY ? (1) Introduction : ( Write a brief introduction of the case study ).(2) Situation Analysis : ( After understanding the case do the situation analysis ) SWOT / SWORT Analysis is one of the Universally practiced way of doing the situation analysis. If enough information is given n the case, then do the SWOT / SWORT Analysis.
26HOW TO ANALYZE THE CASE STUDY ? (3) Identify the problems ( Specify major problem area ).(4) Suggest the Solutions ( Alternative solutions ). Recommend the best solution in your view.(5) If at the end of the case ,questions are asked, then you can answer them directly just after the Situation Analysis (SWOT).(6) Conclusion (if any)
27HOW TO ANALYZE THE CASE STUDY ? SWOT / SWORT ANALYSIS :STRENGTHSLeveragingOPPORTUNITIESConstraintsWEAKNESSESVulnerableTHREATSChallenging(Problem)RISKS