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1 Job Description l The reviewed, edited, and reformatted product of the job analysis. l Attempts to provide statements of fact that describe the job as.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Job Description l The reviewed, edited, and reformatted product of the job analysis. l Attempts to provide statements of fact that describe the job as."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Job Description l The reviewed, edited, and reformatted product of the job analysis. l Attempts to provide statements of fact that describe the job as it is. l Acts as a job contract that conveys employee rights and establishes corresponding obligations.

2 2 Job Description l It protects the employee and the employer by letting the employee know what is expected and what must be accomplished. l Comes in a variety of forms. l May be used as a substitute for / or by the job analysis.

3 3 Job Description l While not universally accepted it continues to be viewed by many organizations as a valuable multipurpose personnel and management tool.

4 4 Definition Of Terms l Position Work consisting of responsibilities and duties assignable to one employee. (There are as many positions as there are employees - sometime even more). l Example: M. Jones, Secretary- purchasing

5 5 Definition Of Terms l Job Work consisting of responsibilities and duties that are sufficiently alike to justify being covered by a single job analysis / job description. Assignable to one or more employees. l Example: Secretary-purchasing

6 6 Definition Of Terms l Class l A group of jobs sufficiently similar as to kinds of subject matter; education and experience requirements; levels of difficulty, complexity, and responsibility; and qualification requirements of the work. l Example: Secretary II.

7 7 Definition Of Terms l Class-Series l A grouping of job classes having similar job content but differing in degree of difficulty, complexity, and responsibility; level of skill; knowledge; and qualification requirements. The jobs within a class-series can form a career ladder. l Example: Secretarial Series I-IV

8 8 Definition Of Terms l Family l Two or more class-series within an organization that have related or common work content. l Example: Administrative Occupation (Secretary/ Clerical).

9 9 Definition Of Terms l Occupation l A grouping of jobs or job classes within a number of different organizations that have similar skill, effort, and responsibility requirements. l Example: Administrative Occupation (Secretarial / Clerical)

10 10 Job Description Multipurpose Applications l Planning It provides data for establishing internal equity and external competitiveness. l Organization Design l Staffing Levels l Career Ladder l Career Pathing l Job Design l Pay System Design

11 11 Operations l Recruiting And Screening l Test Design l Hiring And Placement l Job Orientation l Developing Operating Procedures l Training And Development Job Description Multipurpose Applications

12 12 l Control »Performance Standards Identifies acceptable levels of performance. »Legal Requirements Establishes valid, non-discriminatory standards for each applicant or incumbent. »Collective Bargaining Sets the starting point for management to establish valid pay differentials. Job Description Multipurpose Applications

13 13 Elements Of The Job Description l Job Identification l Job Summary l Job Identification l Accountabilities l Job Specifications

14 14 Job Identification l Job Title l Status (Exempt Vs Nonexempt) l Job Code (Referencing System) l Document Author, Approvals, And Date l Job Location l Job Grade l Evaluation Points l Title Of Supervisor l Pay Range

15 15 Job Summary l A "word picture" of the job that delineates its general characteristics, listing only major functions or activities. l It is valuable to those who need a quick overview of the job. It is especially useful in job matching when an organization is participating in a pay survey.

16 16 Job Summary l It is important that a high level of clarity be conveyed in a few words. Code words are often used to accomplish this goal, but they must be used with a great deal of care to avoid a mischaractorization of the job.

17 17 Common Job Summary Code Words l Under Immediate Direction The incumbent normally performs the duty assignment after receiving detailed instructions as to the methods, procedures, and desired end results.

18 18 Common Job Summary Code Words l Under General Direction The incumbent normally performs the duty assignment after receiving general instructions as to the methods, procedures, and desired end results.

19 19 COMMON JOB SUMMARY CODE WORDS l Under Direction The incumbent normally performs the duties assignment according to his or her own judgement requesting supervisory experience only when necessary.

20 20 Common job summary code words l Under Administrative Direction The incumbent normally performs the duty assignment within broad parameters defined by general organizational requirements and accepted practice.

21 21 Common Job Summary Code Words l Under Guidelines Set By Policy The incumbent normally performs the duty assignment at his or her discretion and is limited only by policies set by administrative or legislative authority.

22 22 The Job Definition Responsibilities and Duties This section identifies the primary reasons for the existence of the job. A responsibility is of sufficient importance that "not" carrying out the duties within it or performing them below a minimally established standard will critically affect the required results and demand remedial actions by management.

23 23 The Job Definition Responsibility statements are analyzed and listed separately and each is subsequently supported by a list of duties that further describe the responsibilities. The commonly accepted limit of responsibilities per job is seven (7) but it will vary with the complexity of the job.

24 24 Job Responsibility / Duty Statements l Job Analysis- Provided Job Content Data The job responsibility and duty statements are typically, at this stage in the process, the product of edited job analysis data.

25 25 Job Responsibility / Duty Statements l Ranking Responsibility and Duty Statements After identifying the responsibilities and duties of a job, the next step is to place them in some kind of order so that the reader can obtain a clear and concise picture of the content of the job.

26 26 Job Responsibility / Duty Statements l Activity-Worth Dimensions and Rating Scales A computer assisted process in which the organization attempts to identify, quantify, and rank the frequency, duration, criticality, complexity, and etc, of job responsibilities and duties.

27 27 Job Responsibility / Duty Statements l Activity-Worth Dimensions and Rating Scales Responsibilities should be listed in order of importance and duties listed under each responsibility should follow the same order. The input of the incumbents as well as others familiar with the work should be solicited when responsibilities and duties are given some order of importance.

28 28 l Describing Jobs of Different Levels of Complexity The higher the level of the job, the more complex the job requirements and associated incumbent activities. The more complex the requirements and activities, the more difficult it is to describe them in clear, unambiguous terms. Job Responsibility / Duty Statements

29 29 l Describing Jobs Of Different Levels Of Complexity The more complex the activities, the more difficult it is to identify relevant activities that are observable and measurable in quantitative terms, although qualitative measurements are certainly possible and applicable. Job Responsibility / Duty Statements

30 30 Job Responsibility / Duty Statements l Describing Jobs Of Different Levels Of Complexity The higher the level of the job, the greater the likelihood that the way identified job activities are performed will vary significantly among incumbents.

31 31 Job Responsibility / Duty Statements l Describing Jobs Of Different Levels Of Complexity As jobs increase in importance, the cognitive and affective domains become more important, and the psychomotor domains become less important.

32 32 Job Responsibility / Duty Statements l Special Notations "Performs other duties as assigned" should never be on any individual's job description. It is unnecessary to start an activity statement with the words "responsible for". The format of the activity statement may take either the outline or paragraph form. The author recommends the outline form.

33 33 Accountabilities l Briefly describes the major results achieved in the satisfactory performance of the job responsibilities and duties. l It acts as a guide for the goal-setting process that integrates job requirements with job-holder contributions.

34 34 Job Specifications l Identifies the knowledge and skill demands made on the incumbent and the physical and emotional conditions under which the incumbent must work. l The design of the job specification section and the information it provides relate to the kind of job evaluation plan used by the organization.

35 35 Job Specifications l When writing managerial job descriptions, the specification section may include such items as people and dollar impact.

36 36 Other Kinds Of Information Used In Describing Jobs l Conditions of Employment »Environmental »Reasonable Accommodations »Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities

37 37 Other Ways Of Describing Job Facts l Position Description l Standing Operating Procedures l Class Description l Performance Standards

38 38 Class Specification Job Description Position Description SOP Performance Standards Other Ways of Describing Job Facts

39 39 Revising The Job Descriptions The first rule in writing a job description is that it must describe the job as it is. However, as the job changes it must be updated. Much of the resistance experienced with the use of job descriptions has its genesis in organizations' failure to stay abreast of job content changes.

40 40 Revising The Job Descriptions The person who should be given primary responsibility for maintaining the job description is the incumbent. Incumbent inputs to the revision of a job description should be on an as needed basis, with the major monitoring responsibilities falling on the immediate supervisor.

41 41 Revising The Job Descriptions All jobs should be reviewed at least once a year, preferably in conjunction with the annual performance review. Audits should be scheduled once every three to five years and that responsibility lies with the human resources department.

42 42 Revising The Job Descriptions The job description should never be considered a straitjacket as to what can be done by the jobholder.


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