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Answer the following questions in your notes. What was your favorite thing about break? What was your favorite present for Christmas? Why are you in this.

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Presentation on theme: "Answer the following questions in your notes. What was your favorite thing about break? What was your favorite present for Christmas? Why are you in this."— Presentation transcript:

1 Answer the following questions in your notes. What was your favorite thing about break? What was your favorite present for Christmas? Why are you in this class/ What do you want to learn in Fish & Wildlife?

2 Unit 1: Introduction LS 1: The History of Wildlife Management in America 2

3 Objectives – Do Not Write Describe the development of wildlife management in America. List specific actions that led to modern wildlife management. Understand the role that wildlife has played in the development of America Describe the era of exploitation of Americas wildlife. Understand the role outdoor enthusiasts have played in the conservation movement in America. 3

4 Define Wildlife Management the care of wildlife and its environment in such a manner as to ensure the continuation of the species Wildlife all non-domesticated animals 4

5 Wildlife Management Development Has evolved during the past 75 – 100 years Wildlife was abused & exploited in the early America This resulted in a loss of habitat and species 1 st attempt of wildlife management Closed season on white-tailed deer in 1694 in MA Largely ignored 5

6 American Settlers & Wildlife New land teeming with wildlife No idea how to use it, many died due to starvation and malnutrition They could not hunt, fish or farm In 2 generations, they were prospering from wildlife and the environment They exploited the abundant wildlife It took 200 years to get farming firmly started There are many differences between America and Europe. 6

7 1700s to 1900s in America Greatest abuse of wild animals in N. America Shot to provide for growing populations Millions of acres of habitat lost due to cities In 1748, SC traders shipped 160,000 deer skins There were no seasons or regulations By 1776, all states but GA had a closed season on deer This was ignored due to the fact that deer were considered pests to farmers 7

8 Rural families made up 90% of the population They lived off what they shot or trapped They shot anything that would provide meat or clothing or if it competed with them for their livelihood Land practices were beneficial to wildlife Added edges and cleared spaces for deer Deer numbers increased 8

9 Losses in the 1700s – 1900s Elk and woods bison In the mid-1800s, market and pioneer hunters exterminated them east of the Mississippi River Turkeys and passenger pigeons Loss of forests for farming resulted loss of habitat Lowered reproduction areas They were also being shot to feed the population 9

10 Exploitation of Wildlife The English did not want to adapt to wilderness They wanted towns and cities – cleared forests They changed the environment to their ideals The French adapted to their environment They became hunters, fisher, and gatherers They embraced the peace and bounty of the wilderness 10

11 Lewis & Clark in 1804 Journey into the American Heartland 50-60 million plains bison roamed Billions of passenger pigeons ~40 million pronghorn antelope 11

12 Alexander Wilson Early observer of American wildlife Native to Scotland 1810 witnessed a massive flock of passenger pigeons in Kentucky Estimated around 2,230,272,000 birds 12

13 End of the Passenger Pigeon May have been the largest concentration of birds Shot, clubbed, and netted by the millions Cutting of hardwood forests was the biggest hit Last one died at the Cincinnati Zoo in 1914 13

14 End of Plains Bison Slaughter started with the end of the beaver trade in the mid-1830s In 1840, over 65,000 buffalo skins were shipped The railroad cut the herd in two and brought hunters with modern guns & ammunition The US govt encouraged the slaughter of bison to defeat the Native Americans In 1878, the vast herds were gone forever 14

15 Tribute to Conservationists They are responsible for the present numbers of bison and pronghorn There are many other species that benefited from conservationists and sport hunters 15

16 Serious Conservation Begins Began in early 1870 with sport hunters Began by working to change the views of Americans on the commercialization of wildlife Market hunters played a major role in eliminating much of americas wildlife Sport hunters never endangered a single species to extinction 16

17 Sport versus Market Hunters All wildlife produces a surplus that allows for some harvest without damaging the population Market hunters slaughtre the surplus & start cutting into the breeding stock Sport hunters use only sporting methods & regulate their harvests Market hunters do not care and kill just to kill 17

18 Sport versus Market Hunters -- 2 Any species is vulnerable when unsporting tactics are used Baiting Driving with dogs Staking out the breeding grounds Led to the dramatic decline in numbers of several species These losses were reported in early versions of the Field and Stream magazine 18

19 Sport versus Market Hunters -- 3 Sport hunters sought to protect nongame animals as well as game 1870s – fashionable to have feathers or whole birds on hats Nesting colonies were invaded due to the color and number at breeding season Young starved or were eaten by predators Led to the elimination of colony after colony 19

20 Commercialization of Any is Bad Sport hunters worked through the Boone & Crockett Club and magazines to get the information to the public This was early wildlife management but called wildlife protection Sport hunters worked to change opinions They wanted enforcement of laws and passage of new ones. 20

21 Progress is Made Lacey Act of 1900 Ended market hunting and the interstate shipment of wildlife and their products Work of John F. Lacey – Hunter & Fisher 21

22 Theodore Roosevelt Tremendous impact on conservation Deep love of big game hunting Strong responsibility to preserve wildlife 1870s to 1890s Created 50 wildlife refuges, 5 national parks, and 17 national monuments In the manner of saving forests for building Father of American conservation 22

23 Aldo Leopold An avid outdoorsman & hunting enthusiast First professional wildlife manager Book – Game Management – in 1933 Ideas Taking a census of game animals Animals have a home range Manage a population by controlling predators, food, water, cover, & other factors Father of Modern Wildlife Management 23

24 Yellowstone National Park -- 1872 First national park signed in by President Grant Established through the efforts of sport hunters Preserve a unique piece of American West Took 20 years to get the protection it has today Finally in 1890, there was protection from poachers 24

25 National Parks & Wildlife Thought to be sanctuaries for wildlife, not always the case Restocking began in the 1900s Breeding stock came from parks & wildlife refuges Todays system of national parks & forest ensures the preservation of at least some of the wildlife 25

26 Helpful Laws Migratory Bird Conservation Act of 1929 Agreement between US, Canada, & mexico Manage waterfowl populations Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act of 1934 Provided millions of dollars for management Earned through sale of stamps to hunters Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act of 1937 aka – The Pittman-Robertson Act Called for a 10% excise tax on firearm & ammo 26

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