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**Probability & Genetics**

Drawing from the Deck of Genes Probability & Genetics

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**# of all possible outcomes**

PROBABILITY Likelihood that a specific event will occur Can be determined by a formula: Probability = # of one kind of possible outcome total # of all possible outcomes

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**Predicting a chance event**

Use probability to figure out your chances of pulling cards out of a deck. Predict possibility of genetic traits appearing in offspring

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**1,3,5 3/6 = 1/2 What is the probability of a coin landing heads up?**

What is the probability of a coin landing tails up? 3. You have a deck of cards ( 52 cards). What is the probability of picking two red queens? 2/52 X 2/52 = 4. A die has six sides. What is the probability of rolling an odd number? 1,3,5 3/6 = 1/2

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**FIRST LAW OF PROBABILITY**

Probability has NO MEMORY 6. If you toss a coin 100 times, what is the probability it will land on heads? 1/2 7. You have tossed a coin 10 times and each time it has landed on heads, what is the probability the next toss will land tails up? 1/2

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**FIRST LAW OF PROBABILITY**

“The outcome (result) of a chance event is never influenced by previous results.” EXAMPLE: Chances of have a boy? After having 3 or 4 girls, what are the chances for a boy ? 1/2 still 1/2

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**Second Law of Probability: PRODUCT RULE**

“Probability of 2 chance events occurring together is the MULTIPLICATION PRODUCT of the individual probabilities.” 8. What is the probability of tossing two heads in a row? ½ x ½ = 9. What is the probability of tossing four heads in a row? ½ x ½ x½ x ½ =

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**PUNNETT SQUARES Can be used to PREDICT Important in Genetics because:**

Used to predict FREQUENCY Of gametes and offspring Valid only when LARGE NUMBERS are used gametes

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**Genetics & Probability**

Mendel’s Laws: Segregation Independent assortment Reflect same laws of probability that apply to tossing coins or rolling dice

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**Second Law of Probability**

The rule of multiplication To find the probability of 2 chance events occurring together Multiply product of their separate probabilities ½ B X ½ b = ¼ Bb F1 Genotypes B b female B b male Formation of eggs Formation of sperm 1/2 B B 1/2 1/2 B B b b 1/4 1/2 (1/2 1/2) b B B b 1/4 1/4 b b F2 Genotypes 1/4 Figure 9.13

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2nd Law of Probability Ex: If your chances of pulling an ace from a deck of cards is 4/52 (1/13) and Your chances of pulling a heart is 13/52 (1/4) , then your chance of getting an ace of hearts is: 1/13 x ¼ = 1/52

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1. Who is named the “Father of Genetics?” Gregor Mendel 2. Why did he use pea plants? To study the inheritance of traits.

1. Who is named the “Father of Genetics?” Gregor Mendel 2. Why did he use pea plants? To study the inheritance of traits.

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