2Learning Objectives: 3.1.7 Vaccination and monoclonal antibodies To understand the use of vaccines to protect against diseaseTo understand the role of memory cells and plasma cells in secondary response
6Edward Jenner 1796 experimented on eight-year-old James Phipps. Pus from cowpox pustule into armfolklore - milkmaids who suffered the mild disease of cowpox never contracted smallpoxSubmitted paper to the Royal Society in 1797 but was told that his ideas were too revolutionary and that he needed more proof.Jenner experimented on several other children, including his own 11-month-old son.In 1798 the results were finally published and Jenner coined the word vaccine from the Latin 'vacca' for cow.
8Artificially acquired Acquired ImmunityNaturally acquiredArtificially acquiredActiveAntigens enter body naturallyAntibodies & specialised lymphocytes produced
9Artificially acquired Acquired ImmunityNaturally acquiredArtificially acquiredActivePassiveAntibodies pass from mother to foetusInfant does not produce any antibodies of its ownAntigens enter body naturallyAntibodies & specialised lymphocytes produced
10Artificially acquired Acquired ImmunityNaturally acquiredArtificially acquiredActivePassiveActiveAntibodies pass from mother to foetusInfant does not produce any antibodies of its ownAntigens enter body naturallyAntibodies & specialised lymphocytes producedAntigens are introduced in vaccinesAntibodies & specialised lymphocytes produced
11Artificially acquired Acquired ImmunityNaturally acquiredArtificially acquiredActivePassiveActivePassiveAntibodies pass from mother to foetusInfant does not produce any antibodies of its ownAntibodies are introduced in an immune serumBody does not produce any antibodies of its ownAntigens enter body naturallyAntibodies & specialised lymphocytes producedAntigens are introduced in vaccinesAntibodies & specialised lymphocytes produced
14Herd ImmunityMembers of a community who are not immune to a disease are still protected, provided sufficient numbers of people in that community are immuneLittle opportunity to spread and find a non-immune personOnly applies to diseases that are caught from other peopleContagious vs infectious
16Outbreak Film Synopsis Put the following steps into the correct sequence:Pet store owner kisses girlfriendMotaba virus discovered in AfricaLab technician breaks vial of infected blood sample & is infectedTwo people dieMonkey is shipped to U.S from Africa in illegal pet tradePet store owner is scratched by monkeyLab technican coughs at the cinema – lots infected & dieInfected blood of two dead people is testedCreate anti-serum with monkeys antibodies & mystery serum just in time before the town is destroyed by the military in an attempt to contain the virusLocate monkey and give mystery serum. Monkey recovers, people do not.
17Smallpox – a bioweapon? Only two stockpiles of the virus remain AmericaRussiaGuarded more closely than a nuclear weaponWHO announced that smallpox was eradicated from the world in 1980Immunisation programme stoppedVaccine only effective for ten years – we now have no/little heard immunity.
19Activity Imagine if there was a smallpox outbreak… Either: Write a descriptive piece on what you would see/hear/etcWrite a newspaper article on the outbreakWrite a synopsis of a film charting the events of the outbreak