2Overview Definition Impact of disability Assistance with academic tasksbehaviorssocial skillsHierarchy of behavioral supportsPositive behavior supportBehavior support planStrategies
3Definition"...a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance--An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.This definition contains the criteria used for determination of eligibility.
4Definition (cont.)Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.A general pervasive mood ofunhappiness or depression.A tendency to develop physicalsymptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems."[Code of Federal Regulations, Title 34, Section 300.7(c)(4)(i)]These two slides have provided the definition of what constitutes eligibility for emotional disturbance. The case write-up must document (but is not limited to) the following information:Effectiveness of pre-referral interventionsThat symptoms are chronic (i.e., over a long period of time)That symptoms are pervasive (at home, school, community)How educational performance is adversely affected by the behavior
5Emotional Disturbance is NOT Social maladjustmentBehavior in conflict with parentBehavior associated with a subculture and contrary to larger community moresBehavior which does not render student helpless, confused or disorientatedAlthough social maladjustment may be associated with emotional disturbance, it is not sufficient to make a student eligible as emotionally disturbed. A student with social maladjustment is likely to benefit from a behavior support plan.
6Emotional Disturbance is NOT Conduct disorderAggression against people or animalsProperty destructionLying or theftSerious rule violationAgain, a conduct disorder is not sufficient to make a student eligible as a student with emotional disturbance.A student with a conduct disorder would likely benefit from a behavior support plan.
7Impact of Disability Academic Skill deficits Trouble beginning tasks Difficulty maintaining attentionProblems completing tasksStudents with emotional disturbance can be easily frustrated by the demands of the academic task and will often need additional encouragement to complete assignments.
8Impact … Behavior Externalizing – Acting out AggressionDefianceDisruptionFightingInternalizing - WithdrawingIsolationSelf abuseDepressionAnxietyInteraction with others (making and keeping friends)Coping strategiesReading social cuesStudents with an emotional disturbance can manifest that disturbance in a variety of ways and in a variety of circumstances. In terms of behavior these three headings describe the ways in which the student demonstrates behavior.
9Academic Tasks - Assistance Provide clear, specific directionsUse curricular interventionsTasks at student’s academic levelAssignments broken into smaller partsBreaks given as neededStudent strengths utilized to learn new materialOpportunities for choice makingGood instruction dictates that we “meet” the students at his/her current level of performance. One of the most common causes of misbehavior in classrooms is poorly adapted instruction. If participation in class is difficult or unpleasant, the result will be either too much behavior (errors, acting out) or not enough behavior (accuracy, quality, withdrawal.)
10Externalizing & Internalizing Behaviors – Assistance Listen to/observe student and make adjustmentsTeach relaxation techniquesTeach alternate behaviorsIt is important to collect data on the student’s behavior in order to have objective information on which to based decisions. Rather than rely on impressions which can be colored by emotional responses, one needs to look carefully at the context in which the behavior occurs. By observing the student throughout the day one can often determine what issues seem to be affecting the student’s behavior.
11Social Skills - Assistance Teach social skills proactivelyBreak skills down into partsTeach, model, practice and reinforce skillsTeach self-regulating skillsStudents with emotional disturbance do not pick up on social skills without direct, explicit instruction. The instruction needs to occur in context so that it is meaningful. For example knowing how to form a line is as important as knowing when to form a line. Teach social skills through multiple examples, frequent practice opportunities, provide feedback and monitor for success.
12Hierarchy of Behavioral Supports School–wide positive behavior supportClassroom ManagementIndividual Support Plan
13Individual Interventions Developed by: Institute On Violence and Destructive Behaviors, University of Oregon (1999)Intensive social skills trainingIndividual behavior management plansParent training and collaborationMulti-agency collaboration (wrap-around) servicesTargeted/Intensive(High-risk students)Individual Interventions(3-5%)Intensive social skills trainingSelf-management programsParent training and collaborationAdult mentors (check-in)Increased academic supportSelected(At-risk Students)Classroom & SmallGroup Strategies(10-15% of students)This model shows why a single intervention or approach will not meet the discipline and student support needs within a school. As depicted in the model we assume that the 75-80% of the students will arrive at school already having learned important social and academic readiness skills. An important part of any school-wide discipline and intervention program is to ensure that the skills of these students are embedded in the daily workings of the school through strategies aimed at all students. These universal interventions attempt to prevent problems before they start.Not all students, however, respond to the universal interventions. Students with chronic patterns of problem behavior require more selected support or highly individualized and targeted support. The level and intensity of support is dictated by the level and complexity of the behavior problem. Programs such as extra academic support, extra adult attention (school-based mentors), scheduling changes, self-management and more frequent access to rewards can be used to improve the overall likelihood of school success and reduced levels of problem behavior.For the 5-10% of students who do not respond even to selected group support, intensive, targeted intervention based on functional behavioral assessment procedures is required. These students require intensive training in social skills along with behavior support plans.Building Effective Schools Together Participant’s ManualThe Institute on Violence and Destructive BehaviorCollege of EducationUniversity of OregonEugene, OR 97403Social Skills TrainingPositive, proactive disciplineTeaching school behavior expectationsActive supervision and monitoringPositive reinforcement systemsFirm, fair, and corrective disciplineUniversal(All Students)School-wide Systems of Support(85-90% of students)
14School-wide Positive Behavior Support School-wide rules and expectationsDefinedTaughtModeledPracticedReinforcedALL members of school community participate in development and implementation of policy
15Classroom ManagementIdentify 3 – 5 clear, concise , positively stated rulesTaught, modeled, practiced, reinforcedReinforce appropriate behaviorPredictable schedule/environment/routineActive monitoringProvide corrective feedback privatelyAvoid power struggles between student and staffEffective classroom management can eliminate many inappropriate behaviors. Students can participate in identifying or developing the classroom rules. The rules must be taught and reinforced in a consistent manner. When students know what the classroom schedule/routine is and how transitions between activities are managed, many inappropriate behaviors are eliminated.
16Individual Behavior Support Plan A-B-CAntecedent – Behavior - ConsequenceCommunicative Intent (purpose of the behavior)To get or get away from…Sensory, Escape, Attention, TangibleReplacement behaviorWhat the should the student do instead?Must serve the same purposeReinforcementHow, when, how often will student be reinforced?All behavior has a cycle of antecedent (what happened before the behavior), behavior and consequence (what happened after the behavior) The purpose of the behavior is to get or avoid sensory, escape, attention or something tangible. In order to replace a behavior you must teach a replacement behavior that achieves the same purpose as the behavior you are trying to change or eliminate. Planned reinforcement is necessary to ensure that the behavior is learned and maintained.
17Proactive vs. Reactive Strategies Teach new behaviorsReinforce appropriate behaviorEmphasize positive expectationsReactiveDoes not promote new learningMay stop the behavior momentarilyEmphasize negative consequences
18Examples of Strategies ProactivePoint system rewardsModelingClear, specific expectationsContractsReactiveTime awayPlanned ignoringLoss of activities, privilegesPunishment
19How Can Support Be Provided? Unconditional positive regard for the studentTeach appropriate behavior and social skillsPositive reinforcement for appropriate behaviorPrompts (visual, auditory, gesture, picture)Frequent positive check inwith school staffSchedulesPeer support
20ResourcesDurand, V. Mark. Severe Behavior Problems. New York: Guilford Press,House, Samm N. Behavior Intervention Manual. Columbia, MO: Hawthorne Educational Services, 2002.Janney, Rachel, and Snell, Martha E. Behavioral Support. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing, 2000.McCarney, Stephen, Wunderlich, Kathy, and Bauer, Angela. Pre-Refferal Intervention Manual, 2nd edition. Columbia, MO: Hawthorne Educational Services, 1993.McGinnis, and Goldstein, Arnold P. Skillstreaming in the Elementary School Child. Champaign, IL: Research Press.O”Neill, Robert, Horner, Robert, Albin, Richard, Sprague, Jeffrey, Storye, Keith, and Newton, J. Stephen. Functional assessment of Program Development for Problem Behavior, 2nd edition. New York: Brooks/Cole Publishing, 1997.Wright, Diana Browning, Gurman, Harvey. Positive Intervention for Serious Behavior Problems. Sacramento: California Department of Education,
21Our lives are not determined by what happens to us but by how we react to what happens, not by what life brings to us, but by the attitude we bring to life. A positive attitude causes a chain reaction of positive thoughts, events and outcomes. It is a catalyst, a spark that creates extraordinary results.―Anonymous