Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Organization and structure of purchasing."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 13 Organization and structure of purchasing
Program Purchasing organization structure Influencing factors of position of purchasing Levels of tasks, responsibilities and authority Organizational structures within purchasing Purchasing job profiles
Purchasing organization structure Strongly depends on business characteristics and situational factors Level of centralized or decentralized structure Centralized Centralized hybrid Hybrid Decentralized hybrid Decentralized Usually a mixed organizational form is chosen
CPO reporting line Organizational structure Total #%#%#% Senior VP/Group VP % %62.06% VP financial/CFO % %217.22% Executive VP % % % President/CEO % % % COO217.39%---- VP Administration %268.55% % VP Manufacturing/Production/operations % % % Other %185.92%237.90% VP Corporate/shared Services VP175.99%20.66%-- VP Materials/Logistics51.76%227.24%258.59% VP Engineering41.41%20.66%41.37% Total % % % Johnson and Leenders (2004)
Supply organizational structure Organizational structure Total #%#%#% Centralized % % % Centralized Hybrid %---- Hybrid % % % Decentralized Hybrid %---- Decentralized % % % Total % % % These figures show that over the past decades purchasing has become much more visible a the top floor of large corporations Johnson and Leenders (2004)
Factors influencing location of purchasing The organizational location of purchasing is very much dependent on the view management holds towards the purchasing function. Management view is related to the following factors: Purchasings share in the end- products cost price Financial position of the company Extent to which the company is depending on the supply market
Tasks, responsibilities and authorities Strategic purchasing decisions (long term impact) Development and issuing operational guidelines, procedures and task descriptions, which provide authority to the purchasing department Development and implementation of auditing and review programs Outsourcing of activities and/or functions Establishing long term contracts with preferred suppliers Adopting a supplier strategy based on multi- versus single sourcing Major investments Deciding on financial participation in suppliers (backward integration) Formulating policies concerning transfer pricing and intercompany supplies Formulating policies on reciprocal arrangements, countertrade, etc.
Tasks, responsibilities and authorities Tactical purchasing decisions (medium term impact) Agreement on corporate and/or annual supplier agreements Preparing and developing value analysis programs Adopting and conducting quality certification programs for suppliers Selection and contracting of suppliers in general Programs aimed at supply-base reduction Operational purchasing decisions (short term impact) Ordering process Expediting activities related to released orders Invoice verification and payment Troubleshooting Monitoring and evaluation of supplier performance
Tasks, responsibilities and authorities Relationship between the three managerial levels and some management positions Strategic levelXXX Tactical levelXXX Operational levelXX Top management Logistics manager Purchasing manager. Senior buyer Buying assistant Managerial level
Organizational structures within purchasing Structures for multi-unit companies Decentralized purchasing: BU purchasing is responsible for all purchasing decisions Centralized purchasing: central purchasing department is responsible for all strategic and tactical purchasing decisions Line/staff organization: both corporate purchasing and BU purchasing exist next to each other and divide responsibilities and activities Hybrid structure: combination of the previous three structures aimed at combining common requirements across operating units. There are different forms of pooling: Voluntary coordination, Lead buyership and Lead design concept. Cross-functional sourcing teams: contracting is done centrally by a commodity team. However, all operational purchasing activities are decentralized.
Organizational structures within purchasing Centralized versus decentralized purchasing: some criteria to consider: Commonality of purchasing requirements Geographic location Supply market structure Savings potential Expertise required Price fluctuations Customer demands In practice these considerations appear to be decisive when deciding on buying products centrally or otherwise.
Organizational structures within purchasing Centralized purchasing organizational structure (example)
Organizational structures within purchasing Decentralized purchasing organizational structure (example)
Organizational structures within purchasing Advantages Direct responsibility of operating companies Stronger customer orientation towards internal user Less bureaucratic purchasing procedures/higher operational flexibility Less friction costs due to coordination Direct communication with suppliers Disadvantages Dispersed purchasing power, lack of economies of scale No uniform way of handling towards suppliers Scattered supply market research Limited possibilities for building up specific expertise on purchasing, supply markets and components Different commercial purchasing conditions among different operating companies Advantages and disadvantages of decentralised purchasing
Organizational structures within purchasing Centralized/decentralized purchasing organizational structure (example)
Organizational structures within purchasing Cross functional sourcing teams at IBM Van Weele and Rozemeijer (1996)
Consequences for purchasing professionals FunctionResponsibilitiesSkills required Chief Procurement Officer (CPO) Developing corporate sourcing strategies, systems and reporting General management skills Leadership Communication skills Corporate buyerStrategic commoditiesCommercial skills Long term planning horizon Communication skills Broad business orientation Category buyerNew materials and components New suppliers All-round technical background Medium planning horizon Commercial skills Communication skills Project buyerInvestment goods and maintenance goods and services Project management skills Technical education NPR-BuyerGeneral and facility goods and servicesGeneralist Business administration Commercial skills Materials plannerMaterials planning Order handling troubleshooting Vendor rating All round Pragmatic Customer driven Stress resistant
Consequences for purchasing professionals Compared with ten years ago, purchasing professionals are: Higher educated (business degree, MBA) Responsible for more dollars More likely to be a women Negotiating more long term agreements Involved in outsourcing decisions Looking out on a global market shape Reducing costs and the number of suppliers
Conclusions Purchasing structures appear to vary to a great extent among companies. This is due to the different views which top-managers hold towards purchasing and supply. When analysing the scope, tasks, responsibilities and authority of the purchasing function, we differentiated between the strategic level, the tactical level and the operational level. Purchasing structures appear to be highly volatile: a period of centralized purchasing is often followed by a change to the other way around.