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Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 1 Chapter 12 Antiinfective Medications.

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Presentation on theme: "Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 1 Chapter 12 Antiinfective Medications."— Presentation transcript:

1 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 1 Chapter 12 Antiinfective Medications

2 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 2 Chapter 12 Lesson 12.1

3 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 3 Learning Objectives Identify the major antiinfective drug categories and the organisms against which they are effective Outline the most important things to teach the patient who is taking antiinfective drugs

4 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 4 Learning Objectives (cont.) Define "spectrum" and explain what this word means in antiinfective therapy List some of the most common adverse reactions to medications used to treat infections

5 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 5 Overview Pathogen Bacteria Fungi Viruses Antimicrobials

6 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 6 Antibiotics Broad-spectrum Narrow-spectrum Adverse reactions

7 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 7 Penicillins Main antibiotic for years Overuse Penicillin-resistant strains Broad-spectrum drug of choice

8 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 8 Penicillins (cont.) Action and Uses Interferes with creation of the mucopeptide cell wall Used to treat multiple infections Overuse and allergies

9 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 9 Penicillins (cont.) Adverse Reactions Neuropathy –High parenteral doses Skin eruptions GI symptoms Urticaria Laryngeal edema Anaphylaxis Drug Interactions

10 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 10 Penicillins (cont.) Nursing Implications and Patient Teaching Assessment –Signs of infection and allergies Diagnosis Planning –10-day regimen Implementation –Route of administration Evaluation Patient Teaching

11 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 11 Sulfonamides Broad-spectrum antiinfective Bacteriostatic action: inhibits folic acid synthesis in the cell

12 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 12 Sulfonamides (cont.) Action and Uses Urinary tract infections Effectively treats multiple microorganisms Preoperative and postoperative therapy for bowel surgery

13 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 13 Sulfonamides (cont.) Adverse Reactions Drug Interactions Potentiate Decrease effectiveness Nursing Implications and Patient Teaching Contraindications

14 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 14 Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics Bactericidal or bacteriostatic

15 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 15 Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics (cont.) Action and Uses Large number of unrelated drugs used to treat infections caused by susceptible organisms Gram-positive or gram-negative organisms

16 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 16 Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics (cont.) Adverse Reactions Superinfections Drug interactions are individualized Food interactions Affected organs: auditory nerves, kidneys, and liver Cross-sensitivity Nursing Implications and Patient Teaching

17 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 17 Chapter 12 Lesson 12.2

18 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 18 Learning Objectives Identify the major antiinfective drug categories and the organisms against which they are effective Outline the most important things to teach the patient who is taking antiinfective drugs List some of the most common adverse reactions to medications used to treat infections

19 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 19 Antitubercular Drugs Overview Underdeveloped nations Risks Etiology: Mycobacterium tuberculosis

20 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 20 Antitubercular Drugs (cont.) Action and Uses Most antitubercular drugs are bacteriostatic: have intracellular or extracellular effects that prevent the organism from building new cell walls, thus limiting growth and spread Some antitubercular drugs are bactericidal Length of treatment Chemoprophylaxis Box 12-1 High-Priority Candidates for Tuberculosis-Preventive Therapy

21 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 21 Antitubercular Drugs (cont.) Adverse Reactions Common symptoms Toxicity: body sights affected Combination therapy Drug-specific symptoms

22 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 22 Antitubercular Drugs (cont.) Drug Interactions Use of other drugs during therapy Nursing Implications and Patient Teaching Assessment Diagnosis –History, chest x-ray, labs –Additional patient needs Planning –Length of treatment Implementation –Dose Evaluation Patient and Family Teaching

23 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 23 Antiparasitic Drugs Amebicides Anthelmintics Antimalarials

24 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 24 Amebicides Entamoeba histolytica Relationship to traveling Infection sights in the body

25 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 25 Amebicides (cont.) Action and Uses Destroy invading ameba Treatment of intestinal and extraintestinal amebiasis. Drug choice depends on location

26 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 26 Amebicides (cont.) Adverse Reactions Common: nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, GI distress, hepatic abscess Drug-specific adverse reactions Overdose

27 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 27 Amebicides (cont.) Drug Interactions Nursing Implications Patient Teaching

28 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 28 Anthelmintics Helminthiasis: infestation by worms Common infestations: Pinworms Roundworms Hookworms Tapeworms Whipworms

29 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 29 Anthelmintics (cont.) Action and Uses Action is drug specific Drugs used: –Thiabendazole –Niclosamide and paromomycin –Piperazine and pyrantel pamoate –Diethylcarbamazine citrate –Mebendazole

30 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 30 Anthelmintics (cont.) Adverse Reactions Drug specific Allergic reaction due to dead microfilaria

31 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 31 Anthelmintics (cont.) Drug Interactions Nursing Implications and Patient Teaching Assessment Diagnosis Planning Implementation –Preventing transmission Evaluation

32 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 32 Antimalarials Action Interfere with the life cycle of Plasmodium Uses Prevention and treatment Adverse Reactions Drug specific: blood dyscrasias, visual and neurologic changes Drug Interactions Drug specific: dermatologic, ototoxic, or neurologic symptoms

33 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 33 Antimalarials (cont.) Nursing Implications and Patient Teaching Assessment –Symptoms Diagnosis Planning –Treatment is strain related Implementation –Loading dose –Prevention Evaluation –Laboratory and diagnostic monitoring; eye examination


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