Presentation on theme: "Diagnosis and symptoms Theories of autism Instructional strategies"— Presentation transcript:
1 Diagnosis and symptoms Theories of autism Instructional strategies
2 Diagnosis and prevalence Affects 1/165 CanadiansDSM-IV-TR CriteriaAt least 2 impairments in social interactionImpairment in communicationEngage in restricted and repetitive behaviour, interests, and activitiesNon-triad impairmentsRestricted interests, obsessive desire for sameness, preoccupation with parts of objects, exceptional proficiency in very specific skills
4 Theories of autism Theory of mind Weak central coherence Executive dysfunctionHyper-systemizingExcess neural excitation
5 Evaluation of theories Explanatory Power: how well does it account for the FULL pattern of symptoms?Universality: Is this deficit evidenced in ALL individuals with autism?Specificity: Is the proposed deficit evidenced ONLY in individuals with autism
6 Impairments in theory of mind Baron Cohen (1985)
7 Theory of mindTheory of mind: the ability to attribute independent mental states to oneself or to others in order to explain or predict behaviour.In the Sally Anne test, 80%of children with autism failed to demonstrate theory of mind.
8 Explanatory power Triad of impairments Impairments in social interactionImpairments in communicationRestrictive, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behaviour
9 Explanatory power Non-triad Impairments X Restricted interests X Obsessive desire for samenessX Islets of ability, idiot savant abilitiesX Excellent rote memoryX Preoccupation with parts of objects
10 Universality and specificity X UniversalityX Specificity
12 Impairments in central coherence Central coherence theory asserts that autism is characterized by an imbalance in the integration of information at different levels; individuals with autism see the parts rather than the wholes, and lack the cognitive capacity to integrate the parts into the wholes.
13 Explanatory power Triad of impairments Impairments in social interactionImpairments in communicationRestrictive, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behaviour
14 Explanatory power Non-triad Impairments Restricted interests Obsessive desire for samenessIslets of ability, idiot savant abilitiesExcellent rote memoryPreoccupation with parts of objects
16 Impairments in executive function Ozonoff (1991)Tower of Hanoi Test
17 Impairments in executive function Executive function is defined as the ability to maintain an appropriate problem solving set for attainment of a future goal. It includes:planningimpulse controlinhibition of irrelevant responsesset maintenanceorganized searchflexibility of thought and action
18 Explanatory power Triad of impairments Impairments in social interactionImpairments in communicationRestrictive, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behaviour
19 Explanatory power Non-triad Impairments Restricted interests Obsessive desire for samenessIslets of ability, idiot savant abilitiesExcellent rote memoryPreoccupation with parts of objects
21 Hyper-systemizing Baron-Cohen (2006) According to this theory all individuals fall on a continuum in their ability to process systemizable (law-governed) information.process information that is systemized and unsystemizedprocess highly- systemized information18
22 Hyper-systemizing Baron-Cohen (2006) According to this theory all individuals fall on a continuum in their ability to process systemizable (law-governed) information.process information that is systemized and unsystemizedprocess highly- systemized information18
23 Explanatory power Triad of impairments Impairments in social interactionImpairments in communicationRestrictive, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behaviour
26 ExerciseEvaluate the explanatory power of the excess neural excitation theory of autism consideringThe triad and non-triad symptomsThe additional symptoms of theory of mind, weak central coherence, executive functioning difficulties, and hyper-systemizingThe academic profile (skill in vocabulary knowledge, word reading, and math; weaknesses in reading comprehension and written expression)
27 My thesis Word level decoding summary Very poor phonological processingWord reading/spelling performance ranges from 10th-12th percentileUses a visual route more than phonological routeDoes not use semantic knowledge to help identify words
28 My thesis Reading comprehension summary Ranges from 12th to 14th percentileStrengthsLiteral and vocabulary based comprehensionWeaknessesInferential comprehension when implicitEvaluative comprehension when a feeling
29 My thesis Explanation of findings CG performed better when the task was law governedEase with literal and vocabulary-based comprehensionDifficulty with understanding feelings and inferencesEase with whole wordsDifficulty with reading phoneticallyTheory of hyper- systemizing (Baron Cohen, 2006)CG was only able to engage one processing center at a timeIn word reading she engaged visual system and neglected phonological and semanticIn reading comprehension she had difficulty integrating knowledge from different areasTheory of excess neural excitation (Courchesne et al., 2007)
31 Intervention Early intensive behavioural intervention (EIBI) Most widely recognized approachMcEachin, Smith, & Lovaas (1993) found that after 4.5 years of EIBI treatment, 9 of the 19 participants were indistinguishable from their peersInvolves discrete trial training (breaking down teaching steps and systematically, repetitively teaching each step).
32 ExerciseFollow the program procedure on your handout and teach a classmate the skill using discrete trial training.Discuss which theory/theories of autism could account for the success of EIBIDiscuss what elements are involved in EIBI that could translate to teaching practice.
33 Intervention in schools Once children are school, EIBI often ceasesTeachers are not trained in EIBIPhilosophical differencesRequires one-on-one instruction, which is largely not available
34 Interventions based on excess neural excitation theory Education needs to beLaw-governed, explicit instructionProvide more support for abstract tasksEnsure automaticity of each distinct task prior to requiring integration across tasksExplicitly require integration when several processes are required to complete one taskReading example....
35 Instructional strategies LanguageAnchor instruction in visual cuesVideo-modellingTake advantage of echolaliaecholalia, delayed non-functional echolalia, delayed functional echolaliaModelingExplicitly teach pragmatic language skills (i.e., respond to the intended message rather than correcting grammar, practice asking questions, etc...)Have students practice noticing non-verbal signals
36 Instructional strategies Social behaviourSocial storiesVideo modellingExplicit practice in social situationsPreparation (visual schedules, practice for situations, etc...)Modelling emotion recognition in social situations
37 Instructional strategies Restricted, repetitive, stereotyped behaviours, interests, and activitiesReducing 'stimming'Redirect attention (incompatible behaviour)Replace with socially acceptable alternativeProvide safe space for stimmingLimit perseveration on particular interest and activity.Encourage development of new interests and activitiesMay use those interests and activities to motivate learning in difficult areas
38 Differentiated instruction Visual supportsVideo-modellingExplicit teachingi.e, teaching theme identificationTask analysisCould use graphic organizers to help work on each part and then draw togetherReinforcement for motivationPre-teachingPredictable classroom environment (schedules, transition preparation)Cognitive credit cards (with visuals)
39 ExerciseImagine that you have a student with autism in your class and for your lesson plan:Task analysis – determine all of the steps needed to complete the taskPlan how you will ensure understanding of each step of each task and how you will support your student with autism in integrating all the steps involved.Identify which steps might be more difficult and suggest ideas to support your student.
40 Reflection In one short paragraph outline: The concepts from the readings/course notes that you were hoping to applyYour contributionHow your contribution successfully applied those concept