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Defence Research and Development Canada Recherche et développement pour la défense Canada Canada Improvised Explosive Assessment Tool CRTI 06-0204RD Presented.

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Presentation on theme: "Defence Research and Development Canada Recherche et développement pour la défense Canada Canada Improvised Explosive Assessment Tool CRTI 06-0204RD Presented."— Presentation transcript:

1 Defence Research and Development Canada Recherche et développement pour la défense Canada Canada Improvised Explosive Assessment Tool CRTI RD Presented at the Public Security S&T Summer Symposium June, Ottawa, Ontario

2 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada INTRODUCTION Project Review Progress and Results Leverage Low-Hanging Fruit Information Leveraging Canadian Indicator Booklet Urban Modeling Protocols Public Security Support Conclusions CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

3 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada CRTI RD: Improvised Explosive Assessment Tool PM: John Anderson Delivery by: Suffield (lead), Valcartier, CERL, CSIS, RCMP, Amita Start-End: October 2007 – December 2011 Total Funding : $3.25 Million M in-kind Total FTE: 18.5 total (7.7 Suffield) Client sponsor(s): CRTI Linkages (National): CSIS, RCMP, CERL, Valcartier, DSTI Linkages (International): TSWG/FBI/ATF, UK, AUS Objective(s): To deliver a capability/tool that will provide investigators and first responder organizations with a means for obtaining rapid, evidence-based and scientifically sound assessments of many improvised explosive formulations, compositions and recipes. This information will be of direct utility to end users by providing accurate information on over two dozen critical factors for a minimum of forty (40) improvised explosive (IE) formulations and/or technologies. Outcomes: - Improved appreciation of threat spectrum and associated implications - Establishment of pan-national capability to assess, and advise on the improvised explosive threat - Database of experimental results and a software tool for first responder and expert investigator use. - Provision of data for the CRTI project Protocol for Modeling Explosive Threats in Urban Environments Outputs / deliverables: -Reports on improvised explosives characteristics -A scientifically sound formulation assessment tool. -A database of experimental data for use in other improvised explosive programs.

4 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool The IEAT Team DRDC Valcartier P. Brousseau, S. Desilets, S. Turgeon NRCan-CERL P. Lightfoot PSCan T. Patraboy, P. Caron RCMP Ian Summerell DSTI Tony Heron AMITA Larry Chop DRDC Suffield J. Anderson

5 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada APPROACH Literature surveys Information fed from variety of sources Explosives Assessments Methods of synthesis/precursors Sensitivity/stability Detonation Properties (Velocity, Critical Diameter, Initiation) Blast Properties (free-field, semi confined, confined) TNT equivalency All info fed into Assessment tool CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

6 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada POTENTIAL COMPOSITIONS –Peroxides (TATP, HMTD, MEKP etc.) –Peroxide-based (H2O2 + organic material-OM, other additives as required) –Non-ideal or other oxidizer-based (AN, UNi, Metal Nitrates, Perchlorates, Chlorates, KMnO4 etc.) –Liquids (NM, NE, IPN, HN, EHN, NG, EGDN etc) –Liquid-based (energetic liquids plus additives such as metals) –Precursor materials –Other (R-salt, HM-RDX, HM-HE (HM-homemade), other candidates from intel assessments) CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

7 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada APPROACH Four Phases Phase I: Review of Information Sources Phase II: Prioritization of formulations to be assessed Phase III: Technical Assessments/Database Development Phase IV: Database population, integration and testing CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

8 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada Last Year: Focus was on Urea Nitrate and Mixtures (urgent requirement for knowledge from our international partners) –CERL: Sensitivity Studies –Suffield: Blast Properties –Valcartier:Chemical and Structural Analysis IEAT Tool/Database Outline CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

9 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada Project Progress Update: Peroxide Desensitization HME based on Metal Nitrates MEKP Characterization Decomposition Mechanisms for UNi Update on Development of the Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool (Software/Database) CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

10 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada PEROXIDES: HMTD/TATP (whats already known) Extremely Sensitive to Mechanical Stimuli (friction/impact) Extremely Sensitive to Thermal Stimuli TATP has high vapor pressure, HMTD much less so ESD Results vary Question: Can these HMEs be desensitized with other materials CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

11 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada PEROXIDES: HMTD/TATP (what weve done) TATP/Al mixtures TATP/AN; HMTD/AN mixtures TATP/grease, HMTD grease mixtures TATP/alcohol, HMTD/ alcohol mixtures TATP/H 2 O, TATP/AN/H 2 O mixtures CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

12 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada Question: Can these HMEs be desensitized with other materials Answer: Yes – but large amounts of material required Dont use 50% HP Use 35% HP Variation in ESD measurements for HMTD a concern CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

13 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada HME based on Metal Nitrates NaNO 3, KNO 3, Sr(NO 3 ) 2, Ba(NO 3 ) 2, Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (planned) Looked at variety of mixtures with metal and elemental fuels Evaluated the hazard and explosive properties of a broad range of potential HMEs No apparent safety issues - mixtures are relatively safe to handle and easy to make by grinding/mixing Clear potential for large-scale detonation devices using binary mixtures with specific metal powder, particularly for KN and SN CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

14 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada Still to do: –Small-scale detonation tests on ternary mixtures –2-kg airblast testing on selected ternary mixtures –50-kg airblast testing on a few mixtures –VOD determination for selected mixtures –Ca(NO 3 ) 2 workup CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

15 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada MEKP Characterization MEKP is easily prepared with readily available chemicals: The preparation of MEKP does not require sophisticated equipment Most publications describe MEKP as a mixture of organic peroxides (mainly the dimer form) which are intrinsically unstable due to the peroxide group (C-O-O-C). MEKP (diluted in a plasticizer) is widely used in the plastic industry as a catalyst for initiating and cross-linking polymerization. In 1996, the worldwide yearly consumption of MEKP was estimated at 22,000 tons (Shu et al. Thermochim. Acta, (2005), 430, 67-71). MEKP is extremely sensitive to friction, impact and heat. CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

16 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada Hypothesis –Evaporation of Nitric acid –Sublimation under vacuum –Revert back to Urea & producing Nitric acid boiling –Decomposition reactions (producing volatile organic species) Vacuum Stability Test (VST): 100 o C for 40hrs – 27% Weight loss and decomposition observed ? Decomposition Mechanisms for UNi CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

17 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada Aging Experiments of Urea Nitrate at 100 o C in an Oven IR and NMR Spectroscopy Studies 24hrs - Urea Nitrate was mainly present 48hrs - Ammonium Nitrate (AN) strongly present 72hrs - AN strongly presents + Urea + Biuret 144hrs - AN + Urea + Biuret CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

18 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada Urea Nitrate Decomposition Proposed Mechanism below melting point CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

19 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada Decomposition processes are complex and were characterized by numerous techniques – could this help with development of detection techniques? Urea nitrate appears stable at room temperature Urea nitrate is very acidic – could produce secondary decomposition process when mixed with other ingredients. Which can lead to unplanned thermal events! CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

20 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada Give First Responders, Investigators, Forensics, Scientists access to reliable information about Improvised Explosives (HMEs) to better assess threats Key players : Defence Research and Development Canada, Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Public Safety Canada. –Evaluate selected HMEs –Build a user-friendly software tool CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool Update on Development of the Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool (Software/Database)

21 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada Adopted an Agile approach for software development –Small iterations Fewer functionalities implemented at a time –Frequent releases –Quick and regular feedback –Build GUI Prototypes accessible from a web browser Version 1 : Data Entry CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

22 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada Data Architecture CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

23 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada Explosive Outputs –Velocity of detonation –TNT Equivalency (Air blast) Structure and Analysis –NMR Spectra –Microscopy Observed Properties –Physical state (solid, liquid) –Odor Hazard –Sensitivity to friction –Thermal stability Disposal –Solubility in water, in acetone Other Properties –Melting point –Toxicity Examples of Characteristics CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

24 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada Activities of IEAT The actors: CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

25 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada Assign responsibilities within the end-users community –They define requirements –Regular meetings with representative from each organization Talk to users with a functional prototype, not paperwork Build a common vocabulary (ex: recipes, synthesis procedures, test methods) Data Advice –Scientists are hungry for data –Public Safety people are hungry for advice –Implement good communication between them Lessons learned to date CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

26 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada Future work and challenges Data population –Enter data beyond document upload –No centralized data Assess data and judgment taken from literature –Level of confidence? Reliability? –Piles of papers => Huge amount of work! Have a good search tool –Meaningful and useful to the different end-users Not for all first responders because it is classified –Desensitize information CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

27 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada LINKAGES/LEVERAGING UK/CPNI/DSTL/METROPOLITION POLICE - HPOM data, other HME tidbits FBI/ARA/ATF - CHP, ASN and FGAN data and more tidbits AUS - Recent Distribution of Reports All done through linkage with TSWG HME-WGs and International Workshops Low Hanging Fruit: Information Sharing CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

28 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada Low Hanging Fruit: Indicators/Warnings for HME Canadianized EH! CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

29 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada Protocols for Modeling Explosive Threats in Urban Environments S&T Thrust : CRTI 6-252RD Clients : CRTI, CSIS SA : Dr. Fan Zhang PM : Mr. Pierre Caron Delivery : DRDC Suffield / CSIS Start-End : April 2007 – March 2011 Resources over life of project: Collabor. : CSIS, RCMP, Martec Ltd., U of Waterloo Linkage : US TSWG, DTRA, UK Dstl FTER&DTotal Funds 1$2200K$ 2700K Outcomes and Deliverables: Physical models for non-ideal blast explosives and target interactions Accurate near-field solutions in urban elements and scenarios Chinook Code update as a first-principle continuum modeling tool for threats of explosive devices and urban target interactions Multiple scaling rules for non-ideal explosives Protocols as guidelines & database for urban explosive threats, loading, structure/ personnel vulnerability for best explosion modeling practices Protocols in both printed manuals and a user-friendly electronic platform Objectives: Develop protocols serving as standards and guidelines for modeling both ideal and non-ideal explosive threats in the close proximity of urban environments, so that the threats on structures and personnel in real-world urban scenarios can be assessed and the range of applicability of the fast tools can be extended The Protocols are based on physically-correct models and will consist of a large number of first-principles, accurate, near-field modeling solutions including pressure (static and dynamic), impulse and temperature histories and P-I curves on structural elements of a comprehensive class of fundamental urban environments and scenarios.

30 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada Support to Law Enforcement: Large Scale FGANFO Trial Low Hanging Fruit: Public Security CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

31 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada Support to Law Enforcement: SME advice on TATP/Al mixtures Support to TC/DHS Development of Simulants for TATP/HMTD DRDC Support (synthesis of HMEs) Installation of CT-80 on Range (2 days/-30C) Data for HMTD, HMTD/grease and HMTD/AN acquired (all three instruments) Data for TATP and mixtures, AN and mixtures to be acquired July 09 Low Hanging Fruit: Public Security CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

32 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada Closing Remarks CA working on a variety of Improvised Explosives-related programs: Ops Infrastructure Protection, HME, Improvised FAE, Modelling/Software, and database development programs IEAT/database coming along nicely Render Safe Procedures (RSP) a Gap area – project starting soon (dedicated site and equipment in design phase) Wealth of information generated/collected – allowing us to offer SME advice on large number of compositions CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool

33 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada Acknowledgements DRDC Suffield: P. Lambert, L. Gagne DRDC Valcartier: D. Chamberland, A. Marois, E. Sinelnikov CERL: B. Ridley, K. Armstrong CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool and last but certainly not least Ms. Louise Ripley & her Team

34 Defence R&D Canada R & D pour la défense Canada QUESTIONS?


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