3 CRTI 06-204RD: Improvised Explosive Assessment Tool PM: John AndersonDelivery by: Suffield (lead), Valcartier, CERL, CSIS, RCMP, AmitaStart-End: October 2007 – December 2011Total Funding : $3.25 Million M in-kindTotal FTE: total (7.7 Suffield)Client sponsor(s): CRTILinkages (National): CSIS, RCMP, CERL, Valcartier, DSTILinkages (International): TSWG/FBI/ATF, UK, AUSObjective(s): To deliver a capability/tool that will provide investigators and first responder organizations with a means for obtaining rapid, evidence-based and scientifically sound assessments of many improvised explosive formulations, compositions and recipes. This information will be of direct utility to end users by providing accurate information on over two dozen critical factors for a minimum of forty (40) improvised explosive (IE) formulations and/or technologies.Outcomes:- Improved appreciation of threat spectrum and associated implications- Establishment of pan-national capability to assess, and advise on the improvised explosive threat- Database of experimental results and a software toolfor first responder and expert investigator use.- Provision of data for the CRTI project “Protocol for Modeling Explosive Threats in Urban EnvironmentsOutputs / deliverables:-Reports on improvised explosives characteristics-A scientifically sound formulation assessment tool.-A database of experimental data for use in other improvised explosive programs.
4 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool The IEAT TeamDRDC ValcartierP. Brousseau, S. Desilets, S. TurgeonNRCan-CERLP. LightfootPSCanT. Patraboy, P. CaronRCMPIan SummerellDSTITony HeronAMITALarry ChopDRDC SuffieldJ. Anderson
5 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool APPROACHLiterature surveysInformation fed from variety of sourcesExplosives AssessmentsMethods of synthesis/precursorsSensitivity/stabilityDetonation Properties (Velocity, Critical Diameter, Initiation)Blast Properties (free-field, semi confined, confined)TNT “equivalency”All info fed into Assessment tool
6 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool POTENTIAL COMPOSITIONSPeroxides (TATP, HMTD, MEKP etc.)Peroxide-based (H2O2 + organic material-OM, other additives as required)Non-ideal or other oxidizer-based (AN, UNi, Metal Nitrates, Perchlorates, Chlorates, KMnO4 etc.)Liquids (NM, NE, IPN, HN, EHN, NG, EGDN etc)Liquid-based (energetic liquids plus additives such as metals)Precursor materials“Other” (R-salt, HM-RDX, HM-HE (HM-homemade), other candidates from intel assessments)
7 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool APPROACHFour PhasesPhase I: Review of Information SourcesPhase II: Prioritization of formulations to be assessedPhase III: Technical Assessments/Database DevelopmentPhase IV: Database population, integration and testing
8 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool Last Year:Focus was on Urea Nitrate and Mixtures (urgent requirement for knowledge from our international partners)CERL: Sensitivity StudiesSuffield: Blast PropertiesValcartier: Chemical and Structural AnalysisIEAT Tool/Database Outline
9 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool Project Progress Update:Peroxide DesensitizationHME based on Metal NitratesMEKP CharacterizationDecomposition Mechanisms for UNiUpdate on Development of the Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool (Software/Database)
10 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool PEROXIDES: HMTD/TATP (what’s already known)Extremely Sensitive to Mechanical Stimuli (friction/impact)Extremely Sensitive to Thermal StimuliTATP has high vapor pressure, HMTD much less soESD Results varyQuestion: Can these HMEs be desensitized with other materials
12 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool Question: Can these HMEs be desensitized with other materialsAnswer: Yes – but large amounts of material requiredDon’t use 50% HPUse 35% HPVariation in ESD measurements for HMTD a concern
13 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool HME based on Metal NitratesNaNO3, KNO3, Sr(NO3)2, Ba(NO3)2, Ca(NO3)2 (planned)Looked at variety of mixtures with metal and elemental fuelsEvaluated the hazard and explosive properties of a broad range of potential HMEsNo apparent safety issues - mixtures are relatively safe to handle and easy to make by grinding/mixingClear potential for large-scale detonation devices using binary mixtures with specific metal powder, particularly for KN and SN
14 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool Still to do:Small-scale detonation tests on ternary mixtures2-kg airblast testing on selected ternary mixtures50-kg airblast testing on a few mixturesVOD determination for selected mixturesCa(NO3)2 “workup”
15 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool MEKP CharacterizationMEKP is easily prepared with readily available chemicals:The preparation of MEKP does not require sophisticated equipmentMost publications describe MEKP as a mixture of organic peroxides (mainly the dimer form) which are intrinsically unstable due to the peroxide group (C-O-O-C).MEKP (diluted in a plasticizer) is widely used in the plastic industry as a catalyst for initiating and cross-linking polymerization.In 1996, the worldwide yearly consumption of MEKP was estimated at 22,000 tons (Shu et al. Thermochim. Acta, (2005), 430, 67-71).MEKP is extremely sensitive to friction, impact and heat.
16 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool Decomposition Mechanisms for UNiVacuum Stability Test (VST): 100oC for 40hrs – 27% Weight loss and decomposition observed ?HypothesisEvaporation of Nitric acidSublimation under vacuumRevert back to Urea & producing Nitric acid boilingDecomposition reactions (producing volatile organic species)
17 Aging Experiments of Urea Nitrate at 100oC in an Oven CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment ToolAging Experiments of Urea Nitrate at 100oC in an OvenIR and NMR Spectroscopy Studies24hrs - Urea Nitrate was mainly present48hrs - Ammonium Nitrate (AN) strongly present72hrs - AN strongly presents + Urea + Biuret144hrs - AN + Urea + Biuret
19 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool Decomposition processes are complex and were characterized by numerous techniques – could this help with development of detection techniques?Urea nitrate appears stable at room temperatureUrea nitrate is very acidic – could produce secondary decomposition process when mixed with other ingredients.Which can lead to “unplanned thermal events”!
20 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool Update on Development of the Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool (Software/Database)Give First Responders, Investigators, Forensics, Scientists access to reliable information about Improvised Explosives (HMEs) to better assess threatsKey players : Defence Research and Development Canada, Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Public Safety Canada.Evaluate selected HMEsBuild a user-friendly software tool
21 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool Version 1 : Data EntryAdopted an Agile approach for software developmentSmall iterationsFewer functionalities implemented at a timeFrequent releasesQuick and regular feedbackBuild GUI Prototypes accessible from a web browser
22 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool Data Architecture
23 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool Examples of CharacteristicsExplosive OutputsVelocity of detonationTNT Equivalency (Air blast)Structure and AnalysisNMR SpectraMicroscopyObserved PropertiesPhysical state (solid, liquid)OdorHazardSensitivity to frictionThermal stabilityDisposalSolubility in water, in acetoneOther PropertiesMelting pointToxicity
24 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool Activities of IEATThe actors:
25 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool Lessons learned to dateAssign responsibilities within the end-users communityThey define requirementsRegular meetings with representative from each organizationTalk to users with a functional prototype, not paperworkBuild a common vocabulary (ex: recipes, synthesis procedures, test methods)Data ≠ AdviceScientists are hungry for dataPublic Safety people are hungry for adviceImplement good communication between them
26 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool Future work and challengesData populationEnter data beyond document uploadNo centralized dataAssess data and judgment taken from literatureLevel of confidence? Reliability?Piles of papers => Huge amount of work!Have a good search toolMeaningful and useful to the different end-usersNot for all first responders because it is classifiedDesensitize information
27 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool Low Hanging Fruit: Information SharingLINKAGES/LEVERAGINGUK/CPNI/DSTL/METROPOLITION POLICE- HPOM data, other HME “tidbits”FBI/ARA/ATF- CHP, ASN and FGAN data and more “tidbits”AUS- Recent Distribution of ReportsAll done through linkage with TSWGHME-WG’s and International Workshops
29 Protocols for Modeling Explosive Threats in Urban Environments S&T Thrust : CRTI 6-252RDClients : CRTI, CSISSA : Dr. Fan ZhangPM : Mr. Pierre CaronDelivery : DRDC Suffield / CSISStart-End : April 2007 – March 2011Resources over life of project:Collabor. : CSIS, RCMP, Martec Ltd., U of WaterlooLinkage : US TSWG, DTRA, UK DstlFTER&DTotal Funds1$2200K$ 2700KObjectives:Develop protocols serving as standards and guidelines for modeling both ideal and non-ideal explosive threats in the close proximity of urban environments, so that the threats on structures and personnel in real-world urban scenarios can be assessed and the range of applicability of the fast tools can be extendedThe Protocols are based on physically-correct models and will consist of a large number of first-principles, accurate, near-field modeling solutions including pressure (static and dynamic), impulse and temperature histories and P-I curves on structural elements of a comprehensive class of fundamental urban environments and scenarios.Outcomes and Deliverables:Physical models for non-ideal blast explosives and target interactionsAccurate near-field solutions in urban elements and scenariosChinook Code update as a first-principle continuum modeling tool for threats of explosive devices and urban target interactionsMultiple scaling rules for non-ideal explosivesProtocols as guidelines & database for urban explosive threats, loading, structure/ personnel vulnerability for best explosion modeling practicesProtocols in both printed manuals and a user-friendly electronic platform
30 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool Low Hanging Fruit: Public SecuritySupport to Law Enforcement: Large Scale FGANFO Trial
31 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool Low Hanging Fruit: Public SecuritySupport to Law Enforcement:SME advice on TATP/Al mixturesSupport to TC/DHSDevelopment of Simulants for TATP/HMTDDRDC Support(synthesis of HMEs)Installation of CT-80 on Range (2 days/-30C)Data for HMTD, HMTD/grease and HMTD/AN acquired (all three instruments)Data for TATP and mixtures, AN and mixtures to be acquired July 09
32 CRTI06-0204RD Improvised Explosives Assessment Tool Closing RemarksCA working on a variety of Improvised Explosives-related programs: Ops Infrastructure Protection, HME, Improvised FAE, Modelling/Software, and database development programsIEAT/database coming along nicelyRender Safe Procedures (RSP) a Gap area – project starting soon (dedicated site and equipment in design phase)Wealth of information generated/collected – allowing us to offer SME advice on large number of compositions
33 Ms. Louise Ripley & her Team CRTI RD Improvised Explosives Assessment ToolAcknowledgementsDRDC Suffield: P. Lambert, L. GagneDRDC Valcartier: D. Chamberland, A. Marois, E. SinelnikovCERL: B. Ridley, K. Armstrongand last but certainly not leastMs. Louise Ripley & her Team
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