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Plant Structure and Taxonomy Travis DeLozier. Major Parts of Plants.

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Structure and Taxonomy Travis DeLozier. Major Parts of Plants."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Structure and Taxonomy Travis DeLozier

2 Major Parts of Plants

3 Plant Varieties

4 Function of Root System Intake of water and nutrients Intake of water and nutrients Support Support Often the largest part of the plant (Some roots go down 6,8, or even 10 feet deep) Often the largest part of the plant (Some roots go down 6,8, or even 10 feet deep)

5 Types of Root Systems Taproot- The main root of a plant, it is heavy and thick and doesnt have many side or lateral branches (Ex. Carrots, Sugar Beets) Taproot- The main root of a plant, it is heavy and thick and doesnt have many side or lateral branches (Ex. Carrots, Sugar Beets) Fibrous- Thin, hairlike, and numerous. Hold soil much better than taproots systems. (Ex. Grasses, Corn) Fibrous- Thin, hairlike, and numerous. Hold soil much better than taproots systems. (Ex. Grasses, Corn)

6 Types of Root Systems Adventitious Roots- Roots that are above ground functioning as support and stabilization for the plant Adventitious Roots- Roots that are above ground functioning as support and stabilization for the plant

7 Root Structure

8 Root Tissues Root Cap- Protects the tender growing tip as the root penetrates the soil Root Cap- Protects the tender growing tip as the root penetrates the soil Area of Cell Division- Very thin region. New cells multiply in two directions. A. Frontwards- small and tougher cells that replace the cells of the root cap B. Backwards- Tender cells are produced and help the root tip grow longer Area of Cell Division- Very thin region. New cells multiply in two directions. A. Frontwards- small and tougher cells that replace the cells of the root cap B. Backwards- Tender cells are produced and help the root tip grow longer

9 Root Tissues Apical Meristem- Responsible for the elongation of the root Apical Meristem- Responsible for the elongation of the root Area of Cell Elongation- Cells become longer and specialized. Area of Cell Elongation- Cells become longer and specialized. Xylem- Responsible for carrying water and nutrients from the soil to the upper portion of the plant Xylem- Responsible for carrying water and nutrients from the soil to the upper portion of the plant Phloem- Carries manufactured food down form the leaves to other plant parts Phloem- Carries manufactured food down form the leaves to other plant parts

10 Root Tissues Area of Cell Maturation- where cells mature and root hairs emerge Area of Cell Maturation- where cells mature and root hairs emerge Root Hairs- small microscopic roots that play a major role in water and nutrient absorbtion. Root Hairs- small microscopic roots that play a major role in water and nutrient absorbtion.

11 Stems- support the leaves, flower, and fruit

12 Types of Stems Woody- Tough and winter hardy. Often have bark around them. Woody- Tough and winter hardy. Often have bark around them. Herbaceous- Succulent, often green, and will not survive winter in colder climates Herbaceous- Succulent, often green, and will not survive winter in colder climates

13 Modified Stems Bulbs- Shortened stems surrounded by scales ex. Onion Bulbs- Shortened stems surrounded by scales ex. Onion Corms- Thickened, compact, fleshy stems ex. Gladiola Corms- Thickened, compact, fleshy stems ex. Gladiola Rhizomes- Thick stems that run below the ground ex. Johnson Grass Rhizomes- Thick stems that run below the ground ex. Johnson Grass Tubers- Thickened, underground stems that store carbs ex. Irish Potato Tubers- Thickened, underground stems that store carbs ex. Irish Potato

14 Parts of Stems Some of the same internal parts as roots Some of the same internal parts as roots Xylem and phloem continue to run the length of the stem and into all of the branches Xylem and phloem continue to run the length of the stem and into all of the branches Dicots- occur together in tissues called vascular bundles Dicots- occur together in tissues called vascular bundles Monocots- occur in separate areas Monocots- occur in separate areas

15 Parts of Stems Node- swollen portion of stem where buds and leaves originate Node- swollen portion of stem where buds and leaves originate Internode- area between the nodes Internode- area between the nodes Lenticles- Pores on the stem that allow passage of gases in and out Lenticles- Pores on the stem that allow passage of gases in and out Axillary Bud- buds along side the axis of the stem Axillary Bud- buds along side the axis of the stem Terminal Bud- located at the tip responsible for terminal growth Terminal Bud- located at the tip responsible for terminal growth

16 Leaves Manufactures food for the plant by using light energy Manufactures food for the plant by using light energy Phototropism- plant leaf is capable of adjusting its angle of exposure to the sun Phototropism- plant leaf is capable of adjusting its angle of exposure to the sun

17 Leaf Types Simple- A single leaf arising from a stem Simple- A single leaf arising from a stem Compound- Two or more leaflets arising from a common point on the stem Compound- Two or more leaflets arising from a common point on the stem

18 Leaf Arrangement

19 Leaf Shapes

20 Leaf Margins

21 Leaf Parts tip- the terminal point of the leaf. tip- the terminal point of the leaf. blade-the flattened, green, expanded portion of a leaf. blade-the flattened, green, expanded portion of a leaf. margin- edge of a leaf. margin- edge of a leaf. midrib-the most prominent central vein in a leaf. midrib-the most prominent central vein in a leaf. lateral veins-secondary veins in a leaf. lateral veins-secondary veins in a leaf. petiole-the leaf stalk (connects blade to stem). petiole-the leaf stalk (connects blade to stem). stipules-leaf-like appendages (at the base of petiole of some leaves). stipules-leaf-like appendages (at the base of petiole of some leaves).

22

23 Internal Structure of a Leaf

24 Cuticle-Topmost layer of leaf. Waxy and serves as a protective covering Cuticle-Topmost layer of leaf. Waxy and serves as a protective covering Epidermis- protects the inner leaf Epidermis- protects the inner leaf Palisade Mesophyll- a layer of elongated cells located under the upper epidermis. These cells contain most of the leaf's chlorophyll, converting sunlight into usable chemical energy for the plant. Palisade Mesophyll- a layer of elongated cells located under the upper epidermis. These cells contain most of the leaf's chlorophyll, converting sunlight into usable chemical energy for the plant.

25 Internal Structure of a Leaf Spongy mesophyll - the layer below the palisade mesophyll; it has irregularly- shaped cells with many air spaces between the cells. These cells contain some chlorophyll. Spongy mesophyll - the layer below the palisade mesophyll; it has irregularly- shaped cells with many air spaces between the cells. These cells contain some chlorophyll. Vein (vascular bundle) - Veins provide support for the leaf and transport both water and minerals (via xylem) and food energy (via phloem) through the leaf and on to the rest of the plant. Vein (vascular bundle) - Veins provide support for the leaf and transport both water and minerals (via xylem) and food energy (via phloem) through the leaf and on to the rest of the plant.

26 Internal Structure of a Leaf Stoma - (plural stomata) a pore (or opening) in a leaf where water vapor and other gases leave and enter the plant. Stoma - (plural stomata) a pore (or opening) in a leaf where water vapor and other gases leave and enter the plant. Guard cell - one of a pair of sausage-shaped cells that surround a stoma causing it to open and close Guard cell - one of a pair of sausage-shaped cells that surround a stoma causing it to open and close

27 Flower Parts

28 Male part is the stamen which consists of the anther and filament Male part is the stamen which consists of the anther and filament Female part is the pistil which consists of the stigma, style, ovary, and ovules Female part is the pistil which consists of the stigma, style, ovary, and ovules

29 Male Flower Parts (Stamen) Filament- thin, stem- like stalk, supporting anther Filament- thin, stem- like stalk, supporting anther Anther- sac located at the tip of the filament that contains pollen. Anther- sac located at the tip of the filament that contains pollen.

30 Female Flower Parts (Pistil,Carpel) Stigma- upper part of pistil where pollen is deposited Stigma- upper part of pistil where pollen is deposited Style- stalk between stigma and ovary Style- stalk between stigma and ovary Ovary- base of pistil which holds the ovules Ovary- base of pistil which holds the ovules Ovule- reproductive structure inside ovary Ovule- reproductive structure inside ovary

31 Flower Parts Petal - colorful and often scented part of the flower that attracts insects. Collectively called the corolla Petal - colorful and often scented part of the flower that attracts insects. Collectively called the corolla Sepal- part of which encloses the bud before it opens. Collectively called the caylx Sepal- part of which encloses the bud before it opens. Collectively called the caylx

32 Stamen Anther Filament Carpel Stigma Style Ovary Ovule Petal Receptacle Sepal all stamens = androecium all carpels = gynoecium all petals = corolla all sepals = calyx Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

33 Flowers Perfect Flower- Contains the stamen, pistil, petals, and sepals Perfect Flower- Contains the stamen, pistil, petals, and sepals Imperfect Flower- Missing any of the parts listed above Imperfect Flower- Missing any of the parts listed above

34 Fruits and Vegetables Pollination- Union of the pollen with the stigma Pollination- Union of the pollen with the stigma Upon fertilization the seed ripens in the ovary. The pistil enlarges and becomes the fruit. The true fruit is actually the seed itself. Upon fertilization the seed ripens in the ovary. The pistil enlarges and becomes the fruit. The true fruit is actually the seed itself. The fruit is a ripened ovary, not a vegetable. Ex. Tomato is a fruit because it is a product of a ripened ovary The fruit is a ripened ovary, not a vegetable. Ex. Tomato is a fruit because it is a product of a ripened ovary Vegetables can be any part of the plant grown for edible parts. May be the root, stem, leaf, or ripened flower. Vegetables can be any part of the plant grown for edible parts. May be the root, stem, leaf, or ripened flower. Another type of fruit is the nut. Ex. walnut Another type of fruit is the nut. Ex. walnut

35 Plant Taxonomy Taxonomy- the science, laws, and principles of classification. Plants are given Latin names Taxonomy- the science, laws, and principles of classification. Plants are given Latin names Carl Linnaeus, a Swedish botanist, developed the present system in 1753 Carl Linnaeus, a Swedish botanist, developed the present system in 1753 Brassica oleracea var. italica L. Broccoli Brassica oleracea var. italica L. Broccoli Daucas carota L. Carrot Daucas carota L. Carrot Ipomea batatus L. Sweet Potato Ipomea batatus L. Sweet Potato


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