4Function of Root System Intake of water and nutrientsSupportOften the largest part of the plant (Some roots go down 6,8, or even 10 feet deep)
5Types of Root SystemsTaproot- The main root of a plant, it is heavy and thick and doesn’t have many side or lateral branches (Ex. Carrots, Sugar Beets)Fibrous- Thin, hairlike, and numerous. Hold soil much better than taproots systems. (Ex. Grasses, Corn)
6Types of Root SystemsAdventitious Roots- Roots that are above ground functioning as support and stabilization for the plant
8Root TissuesRoot Cap- Protects the tender growing tip as the root penetrates the soilArea of Cell Division- Very thin region. New cells multiply in two directions A. Frontwards- small and tougher cells that replace the cells of the root cap B. Backwards- Tender cells are produced and help the root tip grow longer
9Root TissuesApical Meristem- Responsible for the elongation of the rootArea of Cell Elongation- Cells become longer and specialized.Xylem- Responsible for carrying water and nutrients from the soil to the upper portion of the plantPhloem- Carries manufactured food down form the leaves to other plant parts
10Root TissuesArea of Cell Maturation- where cells mature and root hairs emergeRoot Hairs- small microscopic roots that play a major role in water and nutrient absorbtion.
12Types of StemsWoody- Tough and winter hardy. Often have bark around them.Herbaceous- Succulent, often green, and will not survive winter in colder climates
13Modified Stems Bulbs- Shortened stems surrounded by scales ex. Onion Corms- Thickened, compact, fleshy stems ex. GladiolaRhizomes- Thick stems that run below the ground ex. Johnson GrassTubers- Thickened, underground stems that store carbs ex. Irish Potato
14Parts of Stems Some of the same internal parts as roots Xylem and phloem continue to run the length of the stem and into all of the branchesDicots- occur together in tissues called vascular bundlesMonocots- occur in separate areas
15Parts of StemsNode- swollen portion of stem where buds and leaves originateInternode- area between the nodesLenticles- Pores on the stem that allow passage of gases in and outAxillary Bud- buds along side the axis of the stemTerminal Bud- located at the tip responsible for terminal growth
16Leaves Manufactures food for the plant by using light energy Phototropism- plant leaf is capable of adjusting its angle of exposure to the sun
17Leaf Types Simple- A single leaf arising from a stem Compound- Two or more leaflets arising from a common point on the stem
21Leaf Parts tip- the terminal point of the leaf. blade-the flattened, green, expanded portion of a leaf.margin- edge of a leaf.midrib-the most prominent central vein in a leaf.lateral veins-secondary veins in a leaf.petiole-the leaf stalk (connects blade to stem).stipules-leaf-like appendages (at the base of petiole of some leaves).
24Internal Structure of a Leaf Cuticle-Topmost layer of leaf. Waxy and serves as a protective coveringEpidermis- protects the inner leafPalisade Mesophyll- a layer of elongated cells located under the upper epidermis. These cells contain most of the leaf's chlorophyll, converting sunlight into usable chemical energy for the plant.
25Internal Structure of a Leaf Spongy mesophyll - the layer below the palisade mesophyll; it has irregularly-shaped cells with many air spaces between the cells. These cells contain some chlorophyll.Vein (vascular bundle) - Veins provide support for the leaf and transport both water and minerals (via xylem) and food energy (via phloem) through the leaf and on to the rest of the plant.
26Internal Structure of a Leaf Stoma - (plural stomata) a pore (or opening) in a leaf where water vapor and other gases leave and enter the plant.Guard cell - one of a pair of sausage-shaped cells that surround a stoma causing it to open and close
28Flower PartsMale part is the stamen which consists of the anther and filamentFemale part is the pistil which consists of the stigma, style, ovary, and ovules
29Male Flower Parts (Stamen) Filament- thin, stem-like stalk, supporting antherAnther- sac located at the tip of the filament that contains pollen.
30Female Flower Parts (Pistil,Carpel) Stigma- upper part of pistil where pollen is depositedStyle- stalk between stigma and ovaryOvary- base of pistil which holds the ovulesOvule- reproductive structure inside ovary
31Flower PartsPetal - colorful and often scented part of the flower that attracts insects. Collectively called the corollaSepal- part of which encloses the bud before it opens. Collectively called the caylx
33FlowersPerfect Flower- Contains the stamen, pistil, petals, and sepalsImperfect Flower- Missing any of the parts listed above
34Fruits and Vegetables Pollination- Union of the pollen with the stigma Upon fertilization the seed ripens in the ovary. The pistil enlarges and becomes the fruit. The true fruit is actually the seed itself.The fruit is a ripened ovary, not a vegetable. Ex. Tomato is a fruit because it is a product of a ripened ovaryVegetables can be any part of the plant grown for edible parts. May be the root, stem, leaf, or ripened flower.Another type of fruit is the nut. Ex. walnut
35Plant TaxonomyTaxonomy- the science, laws, and principles of classification. Plants are given Latin namesCarl Linnaeus, a Swedish botanist, developed the present system in 1753Brassica oleracea var. italica L. BroccoliDaucas carota L. CarrotIpomea batatus L. Sweet Potato