12General StrategiesProvide opportunities for observation, experimentationPresent experts’ perspectivesEmphasize conceptual understandingEncourage classroom dialogueAssign authentic activitiesScaffold theory constructionCreate a community of learners
13When knowledge construction goes awry: Addressing learners’ misconceptions
14MisconceptionsBeliefs inconsistent with accepted and well-validated explanationworld is flat (k-2)plants “eat” soil, fertilizer (Grades 3-5)division always leads to smaller number (Grades 9-12)Individually, culturally constructedCan inhibit new learning
15Promoting Conceptual Change Identify misconceptions before instruction beginsLook for, build on elements of truth in students’ existing understandingsConvince students that existing beliefs need revisionMotivate students to learn correct explanationsPreserve students’ self-esteem; do not ridicule them for misunderstandingsMonitor students for persistent misconceptions
17Factors Influencing Constructive Processes Individual student knowledgeStudent core beliefsculture, religionTo encourage learning:expose students to diverse perspectivesdevelop community of learnersaccommodate students with special needs
19The Big PictureLearners construct knowledge on their own & in collaboration with others.Learners integrate what they learn to make generalizations.Learners’ constructions are sometimes productive and sometimes counterproductive.