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Knowledge Construction Chapter 7

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Presentation on theme: "Knowledge Construction Chapter 7"— Presentation transcript:

1 Knowledge Construction Chapter 7

2 Constructive processes in learning and memory

3 Individual Constructivism: Storage
Influenced by

4 Individual Constructivism: Retrieval
Combining partial information with general knowledge, assumptions about the world leads to reconstruction errors

5 Social Constructivism
Meaning is jointly constructed two or more people at the same time distributed cognition by groups or cultures over time science, literature, art

6 Organizing knowledge

7 Concepts Mental grouping of similar events, objects, ideas, or people
“Smallest units of thought” Can be concrete (dog) or abstract (noun) Learned through experience (dog) or direct instruction (noun)

8 Schemas & Scripts Schema Script Influenced by culture

9 Theories Integrated sets of concepts & principles to explain particular phenomena “Naïve theories” constructed by individuals

10 Worldviews

11 Promoting effective knowledge construction

12 General Strategies Provide opportunities for observation, experimentation Present experts’ perspectives Emphasize conceptual understanding Encourage classroom dialogue Assign authentic activities Scaffold theory construction Create a community of learners

13 When knowledge construction goes awry: Addressing learners’ misconceptions

14 Misconceptions Beliefs inconsistent with accepted and well-validated explanation world is flat (k-2) plants “eat” soil, fertilizer (Grades 3-5) division always leads to smaller number (Grades 9-12) Individually, culturally constructed Can inhibit new learning

15 Promoting Conceptual Change
Identify misconceptions before instruction begins Look for, build on elements of truth in students’ existing understandings Convince students that existing beliefs need revision Motivate students to learn correct explanations Preserve students’ self-esteem; do not ridicule them for misunderstandings Monitor students for persistent misconceptions

16 Diversity in constructive processes

17 Factors Influencing Constructive Processes
Individual student knowledge Student core beliefs culture, religion To encourage learning: expose students to diverse perspectives develop community of learners accommodate students with special needs

18 The big picture

19 The Big Picture Learners construct knowledge on their own & in collaboration with others. Learners integrate what they learn to make generalizations. Learners’ constructions are sometimes productive and sometimes counterproductive.

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