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Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Chapter 25 Phylogeny and Systematics

2 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Overview: Investigating the Tree of Life This chapter describes how biologists trace phylogeny – The evolutionary history of a species or group of related species

3 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Biologists draw on the fossil record – Which provides information about ancient organisms Figure 25.1

4 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Biologists also use systematics – As an analytical approach to understanding the diversity and relationships of organisms, both present-day and extinct

5 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Currently, systematists use – Morphological, biochemical, and molecular comparisons to infer evolutionary relationships Figure 25.2

6 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 25.1: Phylogenies are based on common ancestries inferred from fossil, morphological, and molecular evidence

7 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Fossil Record Sedimentary rocks – Are the richest source of fossils – Are deposited into layers called strata Figure Rivers carry sediment to the ocean. Sedimentary rock layers containing fossils form on the ocean floor. 2 Over time, new strata are deposited, containing fossils from each time period. 3 As sea levels change and the seafloor is pushed upward, sedimentary rocks are exposed. Erosion reveals strata and fossils. Younger stratum with more recent fossils Older stratum with older fossils

8 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The fossil record – Is based on the sequence in which fossils have accumulated in such strata Fossils reveal – Ancestral characteristics that may have been lost over time

9 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Though sedimentary fossils are the most common – Paleontologists study a wide variety of fossils Figure 25.4a–g (a) Dinosaur bones being excavated from sandstone (g) Tusks of a 23,000-year-old mammoth, frozen whole in Siberian ice (e) Boy standing in a 150-million-year-old dinosaur track in Colorado (d) Casts of ammonites, about 375 million years old (f) Insects preserved whole in amber (b) Petrified tree in Arizona, about 190 million years old (c) Leaf fossil, about 40 million years old

10 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Morphological and Molecular Homologies In addition to fossil organisms – Phylogenetic history can be inferred from certain morphological and molecular similarities among living organisms In general, organisms that share very similar morphologies or similar DNA sequences – Are likely to be more closely related than organisms with vastly different structures or sequences

11 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sorting Homology from Analogy A potential misconception in constructing a phylogeny – Is similarity due to convergent evolution, called analogy, rather than shared ancestry

12 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Convergent evolution occurs when similar environmental pressures and natural selection – Produce similar (analogous) adaptations in organisms from different evolutionary lineages Figure 25.5 Marsupial Australian mole, and eutherian North American mole

13 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Analogous structures or molecular sequences that evolved independently – Are also called homoplasies

14 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Evaluating Molecular Homologies Systematists use computer programs and mathematical tools – When analyzing comparable DNA segments from different organisms Figure 25.6 C C A T C A G A G T C C G T A Deletion Insertion C C A T C A A G T C C C C A T G T A C A G A G T C C C C A T C A A G T C C C C A T G T A C A G A G T C C 1 Ancestral homologous DNA segments are identical as species 1 and species 2 begin to diverge from their common ancestor. 2 Deletion and insertion mutations shift what had been matching sequences in the two species. 3Homologous regions (yellow) do not all align because of these mutations. 4Homologous regions realign after a computer program adds gaps in sequence A C G G A T A G T C C A C T A G G C A C T A T C A C C G A C A G G T C T T T G A C T A G Figure 25.7

15 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 25.2: Phylogenetic systematics connects classification with evolutionary history Taxonomy – Is the ordered division of organisms into categories based on a set of characteristics used to assess similarities and differences

16 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Binomial Nomenclature Binomial nomenclature – Is the two-part format of the scientific name of an organism – Was developed by Carolus Linnaeus

17 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The binomial name of an organism or scientific epithet – Is latinized – Is the genus and species

18 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hierarchical Classification Linnaeus also introduced a system – For grouping species in increasingly broad categories Figure 25.8 Panthera pardus Panthera Felidae Carnivora Mammalia Chordata Animalia Eukarya Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

19 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Linking Classification and Phylogeny Systematists depict evolutionary relationships – In branching phylogenetic trees Figure 25.9 Panthera pardus (leopard) Mephitis mephitis (striped skunk) Lutra lutra (European otter) Canis familiaris (domestic dog) Canis lupus (wolf) Panthera Mephitis Lutra Canis FelidaeMustelidaeCanidae Carnivora Order Family Genus Species

20 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Each branch point – Represents the divergence of two species Leopard Domestic cat Common ancestor

21 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Deeper branch points – Represent progressively greater amounts of divergence Leopard Domestic cat Common ancestor Wolf

22 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 25.3: Phylogenetic systematics informs the construction of phylogenetic trees based on shared characteristics A cladogram – Is a depiction of patterns of shared characteristics among taxa (taxonomic units) A clade within a cladogram – Is defined as a group of species that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants Cladistics – Is the study of resemblances among clades

23 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cladistics Clades – Can be nested within larger clades, but not all groupings or organisms qualify as clades

24 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A valid clade is monophyletic – Signifying that it consists of the ancestor species and all its descendants Figure 25.10a (a)Monophyletic. In this tree, grouping 1, consisting of the seven species B–H, is a monophyletic group, or clade. A mono- phyletic group is made up of an ancestral species (species B in this case) and all of its descendant species. Only monophyletic groups qualify as legitimate taxa derived from cladistics. Grouping 1 D C E G F B A J I K H

25 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A paraphyletic clade – Is a grouping that consists of an ancestral species and some, but not all, of the descendants Figure 25.10b (b)Paraphyletic. Grouping 2 does not meet the cladistic criterion: It is paraphyletic, which means that it consists of an ancestor (A in this case) and some, but not all, of that ancestors descendants. (Grouping 2 includes the descendants I, J, and K, but excludes B–H, which also descended from A.) D C E B G H F J I K A Grouping 2

26 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A polyphyletic grouping – Includes numerous types of organisms that lack a common ancestor Figure 25.10c (c)Polyphyletic. Grouping 3 also fails the cladistic test. It is polyphyletic, which means that it lacks the common ancestor of (A) the species in the group. Further- more, a valid taxon that includes the extant species G, H, J, and K would necessarily also contain D and E, which are also descended from A. D C B E G F H A J I K Grouping 3

27 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Shared Primitive and Shared Derived Characteristics In cladistic analysis – Clades are defined by their evolutionary novelties

28 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A shared primitive character – Is a homologous structure that predates the branching of a particular clade from other members of that clade – Is shared beyond the taxon we are trying to define

29 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A shared derived character – Is an evolutionary novelty unique to a particular clade

30 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Outgroups Systematists use a method called outgroup comparison – To differentiate between shared derived and shared primitive characteristics

31 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings As a basis of comparison we need to designate an outgroup – which is a species or group of species that is closely related to the ingroup, the various species we are studying Outgroup comparison – Is based on the assumption that homologies present in both the outgroup and ingroup must be primitive characters that predate the divergence of both groups from a common ancestor

32 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The outgroup comparison – Enables us to focus on just those characters that were derived at the various branch points in the evolution of a clade Figure 25.11a, b Salamander TAXA Turtle Leopard Tuna Lamprey Lancelet (outgroup) Hair Amniotic (shelled) egg Four walking legs Hinged jaws Vertebral column (backbone) Leopard Hair Amniotic egg Four walking legs Hinged jaws Vertebral column Turtle Salamander Tuna Lamprey Lancelet (outgroup) (a)Character table. A 0 indicates that a character is absent; a 1 indicates that a character is present. (b)Cladogram. Analyzing the distribution of these derived characters can provide insight into vertebrate phylogeny. CHARACTERS

33 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Phylogenetic Trees and Timing Any chronology represented by the branching pattern of a phylogenetic tree – Is relative rather than absolute in terms of representing the timing of divergences

34 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Phylograms In a phylogram – The length of a branch in a cladogram reflects the number of genetic changes that have taken place in a particular DNA or RNA sequence in that lineage Figure Drosophila Lancelet Amphibian Fish Bird Human Rat Mouse

35 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ultrametric Trees In an ultrametric tree – The branching pattern is the same as in a phylogram, but all the branches that can be traced from the common ancestor to the present are of equal length Figure Drosophila Lancelet Amphibian Fish Bird Human Rat Mouse Cenozoic Mesozoic Paleozoic Proterozoic Millions of years ago

36 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood Systematists – Can never be sure of finding the single best tree in a large data set – Narrow the possibilities by applying the principles of maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood

37 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Among phylogenetic hypotheses – The most parsimonious tree is the one that requires the fewest evolutionary events to have occurred in the form of shared derived characters

38 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Applying parsimony to a problem in molecular systematics Figure Human MushroomTulip 40% 0 30% 0 Human Mushroom Tulip (a) Percentage differences between sequences 0

39 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Applying parsimony to a problem in molecular systematics Figure Tree 1: More likely (b) Comparison of possible trees Tree 2: Less likely 15% 5% 15% 20% 5% 10% 15% 25%

40 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings APPLICATION In considering possible phylogenies for a group of species, systematists compare molecular data for the species. The most efficient way to study the various phylogenetic hypotheses is to begin by first considering the most parsimoniousthat is, which hypothesis requires the fewest total evolutionary events (molecular changes) to have occurred. TECHNIQUE Follow the numbered steps as we apply the principle of parsimony to a hypothetical phylogenetic problem involving four closely related bird species. Species I Species II Species III Species IV I IIIIIIV I III II IV I II III Sites in DNA sequence Three possible phylogenetic hypothese A G G G G G T GGG AG G G G AGG AA T G GA G A A G I II III IV I IIIIIIV AGGG G G G Bases at site 1 for each species Base-change event 1 First, draw the possible phylogenies for the species (only 3 of the 15 possible trees relating these four species are shown here). 2 Tabulate the molecular data for the species (in this simplified example, the data represent a DNA sequence consisting of just seven nucleotide bases). 3 Now focus on site 1 in the DNA sequence. A single base- change event, marked by the crossbar in the branch leading to species I, is sufficient to account for the site 1 data. Species The principle of maximum likelihood – States that, given certain rules about how DNA changes over time, a tree can be found that reflects the most likely sequence of evolutionary events Figure 25.15a

41 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings IIIIIIIV IIIIIIIV I IIIII IIIIIIIV IIIIIIIV I IIIII IIIIIIIV IIIIIIIV I IIIII IIIIIIIV IIIIIIIV I IIIII GG AA GG AA GG AAGGAA GG AAGGAA GG TGTG T T T TTGG T G T TGGT T T T 10 events 9 events 8 events 4Continuing the comparison of bases at sites 2, 3, and 4 reveals that each of these possible trees requires a total of four base-change events (marked again by crossbars). Thus, the first four sites in this DNA sequence do not help us identify the most parsimonious tree. 5 After analyzing sites 5 and 6, we find that the first tree requires fewer evolutionary events than the other two trees (two base changes versus four). Note that in these diagrams, we assume that the common ancestor had GG at sites 5 and 6. But even if we started with an AA ancestor, the first tree still would require only two changes, while four changes would be required to make the other hypotheses work. Keep in mind that parsimony only considers the total number of events, not the particular nature of the events (how likely the particular base changes are to occur). 6 At site 7, the three trees also differ in the number of evolutionary events required to explain the DNA data. RESULTS To identify the most parsimonious tree, we total all the base-change events noted in steps 3–6 (dont forget to include the changes for site 1, on the facing page). We conclude that the first tree is the most parsimonious of these three possible phylogenies. (But now we must complete our search by investigating the 12 other possible trees.) Two base changes Figure 25.15b

42 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Phylogenetic Trees as Hypotheses The best hypotheses for phylogenetic trees – Are those that fit the most data: morphological, molecular, and fossil

43 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sometimes there is compelling evidence – That the best hypothesis is not the most parsimonious Figure 25.16a, b Lizard Four-chambered heart Bird Mammal Lizard Four-chambered heart Bird Mammal Four-chambered heart (a) Mammal-bird clade (b) Lizard-bird clade

44 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 25.4: Much of an organisms evolutionary history is documented in its genome Comparing nucleic acids or other molecules to infer relatedness – Is a valuable tool for tracing organisms evolutionary history

45 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gene Duplications and Gene Families Gene duplication – Is one of the most important types of mutation in evolution because it increases the number of genes in the genome, providing further opportunities for evolutionary changes

46 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Orthologous genes – Are genes found in a single copy in the genome – Can diverge only once speciation has taken place Figure 25.17a Ancestral gene Speciation Orthologous genes (a)

47 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Paralogous genes – Result from gene duplication, so they are found in more than one copy in the genome – Can diverge within the clade that carries them, often adding new functions Figure 25.17b Ancestral gene Gene duplication Paralogous genes (b)

48 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Genome Evolution Orthologous genes are widespread – And extend across many widely varied species The widespread consistency in total gene number in organisms of varying complexity – Indicates that genes in complex organisms are extremely versatile and that each gene can perform many functions

49 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 25.5: Molecular clocks help track evolutionary time

50 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Molecular Clocks The molecular clock – Is a yardstick for measuring the absolute time of evolutionary change based on the observation that some genes and other regions of genomes appear to evolve at constant rates

51 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Neutral Theory Neutral theory states that – Much evolutionary change in genes and proteins has no effect on fitness and therefore is not influenced by Darwinian selection – And that the rate of molecular change in these genes and proteins should be regular like a clock

52 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Difficulties with Molecular Clocks The molecular clock – Does not run as smoothly as neutral theory predicts

53 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Applying a Molecular Clock: The Origin of HIV Phylogenetic analysis shows that HIV – Is descended from viruses that infect chimpanzees and other primates A comparison of HIV samples from throughout the epidemic – Has shown that the virus has evolved in a remarkably clocklike fashion

54 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Universal Tree of Life The tree of life – Is divided into three great clades called domains: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya The early history of these domains is not yet clear Figure BacteriaEukaryaArchaea 4Symbiosis of chloroplast ancestor with ancestor of green plants 3Symbiosis of mitochondrial ancestor with ancestor of eukaryotes 2Possible fusion of bacterium and archaean, yielding ancestor of eukaryotic cells 1Last common ancestor of all living things Billion years ago Origin of life


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