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Understanding Micrologic Contents Range Protection against overloads Protection against short-circuits Protection against insulation faults Hardware.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Micrologic Contents Range Protection against overloads Protection against short-circuits Protection against insulation faults Hardware."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Understanding Micrologic

3 Contents Range Protection against overloads Protection against short-circuits Protection against insulation faults Hardware Metering Others functions Monitoring and/or protection of loads Load shedding and reconnection Programmable controller Harmonic Asic and microprocessor self-protection

4 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 3 Micrologic Range A Without Current protection type 2 :Distribution L, I 5 :Selective L, S, I 6: Selective and ground fault L, S, I, G 7 :Selective and earth leakage L, S, I, V P H Micrologic 6. 0 P Measurement type version Current protection type 2.0 A 5.0 A 6.0 A 7.0 A 5.0 P 6.0 P 7.0 P 5.0 H 6.0 H 7.0 H Return to contents Measurement type

5 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 4 Protection against risk of fire Protection against overloads phases Long-time protection (i²t) of the phases and the neutral Protect against premature ageing of cables Adjustable setting range using rating plugs standard : , low : , High : , plug OFF Setting to within one Amp with keypad or via Communication LT setting

6 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 5 Protection against overloads neutral conductor Neutral protection Adjustment : by three position dial on the 4th pole : 4P 3D, 3D+N/2, 4P 4D by keypad : OFF, 1/2, Full, 1.6 (3 pole breaker only) Settings : N/2 : Ir N = 1/2 Ir P, Isd N = 1/2 Isd P, Ii N = Ii P, Ig N = Ig P 1.6N : Ir N = 1.6 Ir P, Isd N = 1.6 Isd P, Ii N = Ii P, Ig N = Ig P Oversized neutral protection protection against 3rd-order harmonics summed up in the neutral conductor 3Pole breaker only

7 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 6 Protection against overloads 3rd harmonic in neutral conductor

8 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 7 Protection against overloads IDMTL Long-time protection of the phases IDMTL type (Inverse definite minimum time lag) High voltage fuse Extremely inverse time Very inverse time Standard inverse time Definite time Improvement of discrimination with HV fuses Better protection of switchgears Return to contents

9 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 8 Protection against risk of damage Protection against short-circuits Short-time protection For low impedance short-circuits (80% of faults) I²t ON to improve discrimination with downstream protection, inverse time protection up to 10Ir Instantaneous protection For solid short-circuits N1 and H1 breaker : OFF position inhibits the instantaneous protection H2, H3 and L1 breaker : OFF postion = DIN value (shown on screen) RMS measurement with 20ms fixed time delay ST pick-up ST delay pick- up Inst.

10 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 9 Protection against short-circuits Zone selective interlocking (ZSI) Principle : ZSI enables the control units to communicate with each other. The system is able to locate the short circuit or ground fault and clear it. Functionning : ZSI allows the circuit breaker to ignore its preset delay when necessary. The fault is cleared by the nearest upstream circuit breaker with no intentional time delay. Advantages : Faster tripping time without sacrificing coordination Limitation of system stress by reducing amount of let through energy. Maximum : 100 circuit breakers interconnected whatever the configuration Return to contents

11 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 10 Ig Protection against insulation faults Ground fault Ground fault protection Micrologic 6.0P Made mandatory by NEC Residual current Source Ground Return Prevent risk of fire

12 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 11 New Protection against insulation faults Earth leakage Earth-leakage protection Micrologic 7.0P Mandatory per standards NFC and IEC 364 In a TT system, protects property against low level fault currents In a TNS system, protects installations where long cables are installed Return to contents

13 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 12 Hardware Principle and power supply Trip unit power supply Power supply COM Module Optical coupling Optional external 24V DC power supply for : programmable contact power supply and when breaker is open : Powers display, Identification, adjustments through Com module Iron CT Air CT Isolation Standard Internal voltage sensor <690v or optional external voltage sensor for µP power supply and measurement ASIC Basic protection L S I G V Microprocessor Additional functions (monitoring, measurement, analyses...) 24V DC BUS power supply Surplus Synchronous Exchange data Mitop ZSI Plugs : Calibre/ perform. Opto Com Test kit M2C/M6C Return to contents

14 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 13 Metering Principle Sampling 544µs 1 s Refresh 15 s (sliding) min (fixed) 1s Integration Instant. data 5 to 60 min Integration Demand data Return to contents

15 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 14 RMS measurement Sampling frequency : 1838Hz One measurement point every 544µs 36 points per cycle RMS value calculation 20ms 10ms

16 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 15 Others functions Principle Meter Programmable Controller Demand Instant. data I avg P avg I RMS P Q S E P E Q Thresholds (pickup & dropout) Min / Max Max I 1 : Min 17 Relay Activation M2C/M6C Logging: Data Logs Historical Data Maintenance Data Breaker trip Mitop Monitor Return to contents

17 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 16 Demand measurements fixed or sliding window fixed window Measurement of active reactive and apparent power time intervals programmable between 5mn and 1h values are refreshed at the end of the time interval Sliding window Measurement of current and active reactive and apparent power time intervals programmable between 5mn and 1h values are refreshed every 15 sec fixed sliding t 15s 5mn to 1h

18 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 17 Power factor PF Power factor PF = P/S P: active power S: apparent power Nota : cos ф= P1/S1 P1 : Fundamental active power S1 : Fundamental apparent power reactive power Q kvar active power P kW apparent power S kVA

19 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 18 Power factor PF Sign convention Active Power Reactive Power Watts + VArs + P.F - Watts + VArs - P.F + Watts - VArs - P.F - Watts - VArs + P.F + IEEE : PF sign = - Q sign(P/S) IEEE altenate : PF sign = Q sign(P/S) IEC : PF sign = sign(P/S) Reactive Power Watts + VArs + P.F + Watts + VArs - P.F - Watts - VArs - P.F + Watts - VArs + P.F + Reactive Power Watts + VArs + P.F + Watts + VArs - P.F + Watts - VArs - P.F - Watts - VArs + P.F - Active Power

20 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 19 Monitoring and/or protection of loads based on current, voltage, power, frequency Current and voltage unbalance Phases rotation Maximum current (per phases & neutral) Reverse power Minimum / maximum frequency Minimum / maximum voltage

21 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 20 Monitoring and/or protection of loads Principle of operation Alarm generated by Micrologic Activation threshold Deactivation threshold T1 T2 t variable

22 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 21 Monitoring and/or protection of loads Current unbalance ANSI 46 Application Protect rotating machines (motors, generators) operating on balanced three- phase supplies against ageing and slowing Balance single-phase loads on three- phase distribution systems Detect phase loss Principle the function compares the current unbalance to the threshold previously set by the user, for a time greater than the time delay Example I 1 = 2500A I 2 = 4000A I 3 = 3400A Iaverage. = 3300A Emax = I 1 - Iave. = 800A I = Emax /Iaverage = 24% I average I1I1 I2I2 I3I3 E max

23 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 22 Monitoring and/or protection of loads Maximum current per phase and N Application Obtain the maximum current demand in the presence of major load fluctuations (welding machines, crushers, hoists) Principle This function calculates the maximum demand value of the current in each Ph and Neutral over a sliding time interval. The interval can be adjusted between five minutes and one hour. The value is refreshed every 15s I max demand t1t1 t2t2

24 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 23 U average U 12 U 23 U 31 E max Monitoring and/or protection of loads Voltage unbalance ANSI 47 Application Protect loads against vibrations, temperature rise and premature ageing Principle The function compares the voltage unbalance to the threshold previously set by the user, for a time greater than the time delay. Example U12 = 330v U23 = 390v U31 = 10V U average. = 243v Emax = U31 - U average. =233v U = Emax /U average. = 96%

25 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 24 Monitoring and/or protection of loads Minimum voltage ANSI 27 Application Protect motors against voltage drops resulting in loss of torque and a major increase in the current drawn by the motor Check the output voltage of a generator… Principle The function is activated when one of the phase to phase voltages is below the threshold set by the user, for a time greater than the time delay. The function is desactivated when all 3 phase are above the threshold. U 12 U 23 U 31 U 12 U 23 U 31 Activation threshold U min dectivation threshold U min

26 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 25 Monitoring and/or protection of loads Minimum voltage ANSI 27 U U max activation threshold (maxi 1200V) U min deactivation threshold Alarm U min activation threshold (mini 100V) 100V T1 T2 t

27 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 26 Monitoring and/or protection of loads Maximun voltage ANSI 59 Application Protect loads (motor and transformer) against abnormally high voltages that can result in irreversible damage Avoid saturation of transformers Principle The function is activated when one of the phase to phase voltages is above the threshold set by the user, for a time greater than the time delay The function is desactivated when all 3 phases are under the threshold U 12 U 23 U 31 U 12 U 23 U 31 Activation threshold U max deativation threshold U max

28 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 27 Monitoring and/or protection of loads Maximum voltage ANSI 27 U U max activation threshold (maxi 1200V) Deactivation threshold Alarm U min activation threshold (mini 100V) 1200V T1 T2 t

29 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 28 Monitoring and/or protection of loads Reverse power ANSI 32P Application Protect diesel engines from generators operating as motors marine applications, generator sets… Avoid power transfers between two parallel-connected sources Principle The function is activated when the active power flowing in the direction opposite set by the user is greater than the activation threshold for a time greater than the time delay. P kW Load shedding Reconnection Reverse power Activation t Deactivation

30 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 29 Monitoring and/or protection of loads Minimum frequency ANSI 81 Application Check the frequency of a generator Check the frequency across the terminals of a motor Avoid saturation of transformers following a drop in frequency Principle The function is activated when the frequency exceeds the set threshold for a time greater than the time delay

31 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 30 Monitoring and/or protection of loads Minimum frequency ANSI 81 F F max activation threshold (maxi 540Hz) F min deactivation threshold Alarm F min activation threshold (mini 45Hz) 45Hz T1 T2 t

32 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 31 Monitoring and/or protection of loads Maximum frequency ANSI 81 Application Check the frequency of a generator Check the frequency across the terminals of a motor Principle The function is activated when the frequency exceeds the set threshold for a time greater than the time delay

33 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 32 Monitoring and/or protection of loads Maximum frequency ANSI 81 F F max activation threshold (maxi 540Hz) F max deactivation threshold Alarm F min activation threshold (mini 45Hz) 540Hz T1 T2

34 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 33 Monitoring and/or protection of loads Phase rotation Application Avoid reversed rotation of motors Check on coupling between generator and distribution system (phase sequence) Principle The function compares the actual phase sequence with the selected sequence Alarm only Not available if the 400 Hz frequency is set

35 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 34 Load shedding and reconnection based on current Application Ensure the continuity of service of priority circuits by disconnecting non- priority loads Principle The function is activated when the current exceeds the set threshold for a time greater than the time delay I shedding reconnection t

36 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 35 Load shedding and reconnection based on power Application Ensure the continuity of service of priority circuits by disconnecting non-priority loads Principle The function is activated when the power exceeds the set threshold for a time greater than the time delay sheddingreconnection P kW 100 kW 10MW Activation Deactivation Alarm t

37 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 36 Programmable controller Alarms and relay outputs with distinct thresholds Alarm on supervisor via Com module activation and desactivation after a programmable time delay M2C or M6C relay outputs without latching ==> follows the state of the alarm with temporary latching programmable from 1s to 6mn with permanent latching ==> needs a resetting Relays without latching Relays with temporary latching Relays with permanent latching Reset from 1s to 360s Alarm Activation Deactivation T1 T2 t possible Resetting

38 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 37 from 1s to 360s Programmable controller Alarms and relay outputs with identical thresholds Alarm Relays without latching Relays with temporary latching Relays with permanent latching Reset Activation/ Deactivation T1T2 possible resetting Alarm on supervisor via Com module activation and desactivation after a programmable time delay M2C or M6C relay outputs without latching ==> follows the state of the alarm with temporary latching programmable from 1s to 6mn with permanent latching ==> needs to be reset

39 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 38 Harmonic Definition A periodic signal is a combination of : The original sinusoidal signal at the fundamental frequency Other sinusoidal signals (the harmonics) with frequencies that are whole-number multiples of the fundamental frequency A DC component, where applicable Return to contents

40 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 39 Harmonic Origin and effects Origin Harmonics are caused by non linear loads such as : Welding machines arc/induction furnaces Variable speed drive office equipment (computer, copy machine, neon lighting…) Effects The flow of harmonics in distribution systems can cause serious problems such as : Increased currents (oversized neutral) Additional losses and premature aging Disturbances to loads due to voltage harmonics Disturbances in communication networks Return to contents

41 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 40 Harmonic Quality indicators These indicators are the indispensable tools used to determine any required corrective action : Measurement of the fundamental Phase displacement of the fundamental Harmonic distorsion THD cos ф, power factor K factor, crest factor Distorsion power, distorsion factor Amplitude spectrum up to order 31 st Displacement spectrum Return to contents

42 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 41 Harmonic Total Harmonic Distortion Current THD% Current per phase Neutral current Voltage THD% Phase to phase voltage Phase - Neutral voltage

43 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 42 Harmonic Fast Fourier Transfert Current harmonics each phase plus neutral up to 31st order Voltage harmonics phase to phase phase to Neutral up to 31st order Return to contents

44 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 43 Harmonic Waveform capture (WFC) Triggered manually 4 cycles magnitude I : [ In] magnitude V: [0- 690V] 64 points /cycle Triggered on event (alarm > 1s) 4 cycles (on supervisor) magnitude I : [ In] magnitude V: [0- 690V] 64 points /cycle triggered by a fault 11/13 cycles (50/60 Hz) magnitude I : [ In] magnitude V: [0- 690V] 18/15 points /cycle (50/60 Hz) WFC available through the COM option only

45 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 44 Asic and microprocessor self-protection ASIC Self protection : - temperature - power supply deficiency µPro Auto-test µPro & automatic reset Asic watchdog Maintenance log time recording : Asic maxi temperature ASIC error code Data exchange reading

46 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 45 Asic and microprocessor self-protection ASIC self protection resulting in a circuit breaker tripping : excessive temperature >120° ASIC power supply deficiency (overvoltage) Indication : LED Ap « ON » display of error code on LCD screen Events log recording ===>supervisor µP self protection never trip the circuit-breaker Memory check sum Time-out Detection by the µPro of a serial link failure between µP and the ASIC Indication : Events log recording ===>supervisor (if communication still healthy)

47 Understanding Micrologic P- 14/03- DBTP218EN 46 That s all for today ! Isn t it simple and nice ?


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