4Learning ObjectivesDescribe the nature of emotional intelligence and its role in managementDefine organizational culture and explain how managers both create and are influenced by organizational culture
5Personality TraitsParticular tendencies to feel, think, and act in certain ways that can be used to describe the personality of every individualManager’s personalities influence their behavior and approach to managing people and resources
7Manager’s and TraitsNo single trait is right or wrong for being an effective managerEffectiveness is determined by a complex interaction between the characteristics of managers and the nature of the job and organization in which they are working
8Manager’s and TraitsPersonality traits that enhance managerial effectiveness in one situation may actually impair it in another
9Question?What is the tendency to experience positive emotions and moods?Negative affectivityExtraversionAgreeablenessConscientiousnessThe correct answer is “B”. See next slide.
10Big Five Personality Traits Extraversion – tendency to experience positive emotions and moods and feel good about oneself and the rest of the world
11Big Five Personality Traits Managers high in extraversion tend to be sociable, affectionate, outgoing and friendlyManagers low in extraversion tend to be less inclined toward social interaction and have a less positive outlook
13Big Five Personality Traits Negative affectivity – tendency to experience negative emotions and moods, feel distressed, and be critical of oneself and others
14Big Five Personality Traits Managers high in negative affectivity may often feel angry and dissatisfied and complain about their own and others’ lack of progressManagers who are low in negative affectivity do not tend to experience many negative emotions and moods and are less pessimistic and critical of themselves and others
16Big Five Personality Traits Agreeableness – tendency to get along well with others
17Big Five Personality Traits Managers high in agreeableness are likable, affectionate and care about othersManagers with low agreeableness may be distrustful, unsympathetic, uncooperative and antagonistic
18Big Five Personality Traits Conscientiousness – tendency to be careful, scrupulous, and persevering
19Big Five Personality Traits Managers high in this trait are organized and self-disciplinedManagers low in this trait lack direction and self-discipline
20Big Five Personality Traits Openness to Experience – tendency to be original, have broad interests, be open to a wide range of stimuli, be daring and take risks
21Big Five Personality Traits Managers who are high in openness to experience may be especially likely to take risks and be innovative in their planning and decision makingManagers who are low in this trait may be less prone to take risks and be more conservative in their planning and decision making
22Other Personality Traits Internal locus of controlBelief that you are responsible for your own fateOwn actions and behaviors are major and decisive determinants of job outcomes
23Other Personality Traits External locus of controlBelieve that outside forces are responsible for what happens to and around themDo not think their own actions make much of a difference
24Other Personality Traits Self-EsteemThe degree to which people feel good about themselves and their abilitiesHigh self-esteem causes a person to feel competent, deserving and capable.Persons with low self-esteem have poor opinions of themselves and are unsure about their capabilities.
25Question?What need is the extent to which an individual has a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well?AchievementAffiliationPowerExtensionThe correct answer is “A” Achievement. See next slide.
26Other Personality Traits Need for AchievementThe extent to which an individual has a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well and meet personal standards for excellence
27Other Personality Traits Need for AffiliationThe extent to which an individual is concerned about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations, being liked, and having other people get along
28Other Personality Traits Need for PowerThe extent to which an individual desires to control or influence others
29Values, Attitudes, and Moods and Emotions Describe what managers try to achieve through work and how they think they should behaveAttitudesCapture managers’ thoughts and feelings about their specific jobs and organizations.Moods and EmotionsEncompass how managers actually feel when they are managing
30Values Terminal Values Instrumental Values A personal conviction about life-long goalsInstrumental ValuesA personal conviction about desired modes of conduct or ways of behavingTerminal ValuesA personal conviction about life-long goalsA sense of accomplishment, equality, and self-respect.Instrumental ValuesA personal conviction about desired modes of conduct or ways of behavingBeing hard-working, broadminded, capable.
31ValuesValue SystemWhat a person is striving to achieve in life and how they want to behave
32Terminal and Instrumental Values Source: Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: Free Press, 1973).Figure 3.4
33Attitudes Attitude Job Satisfaction Organizational Commitment A collection of feelings and beliefsJob SatisfactionOrganizational Commitment
34Attitudes Job Satisfaction A collection of feelings and beliefs that managers have about their current jobs.Managers high on job satisfaction have a positive view of their jobs.Levels of job satisfaction tend increase as managers move up in the hierarchy in an organization.
35Sample Items from Two Measures of Satisfaction Source: R.B. Dunham and J. B. Herman, “ Development of a Female Face Scale for Measuring Job Satisfaction.” Journal of Applied Psychology 60 (1975): 629–31.Figure 3.5
36Attitudes Organizational Citizenship Behaviors Behaviors that are not required of organizational members but that help the firm in gaining a competitive advantage.
37AttitudesManagers with high satisfaction are more likely perform these “above and beyond the call of duty” behaviors.Managers who are satisfied with their jobs are less likely to quit
38Attitudes Organizational Commitment The collection of feelings and beliefs that managers have about their organization as a whole
39Organizational Commitment Believe in what their organizations are doingProud of what their organizations stand forMore likely to go above and beyond the call of dutyLess likely to quit
40A Measure of Organizational Commitment Source: L. W. Porter and F. J. Smith, “Organizational Commitment Questionnaire,” in J. D. Cook, S. J. Hepworth, T. D. Wall, and P. B. Warr, eds., The Experience of Work: A Compendium and Review of 249 Measures and Their Use (New York: Academic Press, 1981), 84–86.Figure 3.6
41Moods and Emotions Mood A feeling or state of mind Positive moods provide excitement, elation, and enthusiasm.Negative moods lead to fear, distress, and nervousness.A manager’s mood affects their treatment of others and how others respond to them.Subordinates perform better and relate better to managers who are in a positive mood.Current situations and a person's basic outlook affect a person’s current mood.
42A Measure of Positive and Negative Mood at Work Source: A. P. Brief, M. J. Burke, J. M. George, B. Robinson, and J. Webster, “ Should Negative Affectivity Remain an Unmeasured Variable in the Study of Job Stress?” Journal of Applied Psychology 73 (1988): 193–98.Figure 3.6
43Emotional Intelligence The ability to understand and manage one’s own moods and emotions and the moods and emotions of other people.Helps managers carry out their interpersonal roles of figurehead, leader, and liaison.
44Emotional Intelligence Managers with a high level of emotional intelligence are more likely to understand how they are feeling and whyMore able to effectively manage their feelings so that they do not get in the way of effective decision-making
45Organizational Culture Shared set of beliefs, expectations, values, norms, and work routines that influence how members of an organization relate to one another and work together to achieve organizational goals
46Organizational Culture When organizational members share an intense commitment to cultural values, beliefs, and routines a strong organizational culture existsWhen members are not committed to a shared set of values, beliefs, and routines, organizational culture is weak
47Organizational Culture Attraction-Selection-Attrition FrameworkA model that explains the role that founders’ personal characteristics play in determining organizational culture.Founders of firms tend to hire employees whose personalities that are to their own, which may or may not benefit the organization over the long-term.
48Role of Values and Norms Terminal values – signify what an organization and its employees are trying to accomplishInstrumental values – guide the ways in which the organization and its members achieve organizational goals
49Role of Values and Norms Managers determine and shape organizational culture through the kinds of values and norms they promote in an organization
51SocializationOrganizational socialization – process by which newcomer’s learn an organization’s values and norms and acquire the work behaviors necessary to perform jobs effectively
52Ceremonies and RitesFormal events that recognize incidents of importance to the organization as a whole and to specific employees
53Discussion Question?What are examples of events that recognize employees and their importance to the organization? Which of the following would be the most meaningful to the employee and to the organization?MoneyStock OptionsPlaqueParking SpaceSome examples are promotions, recognition awards, and service awards (time with the company). Students may discuss personal experience and the type of award they would most appreciate – gift cards, money, stock options, plaques, parking space, etc.
54Ceremonies and RitesRites of passage – determine how individuals enter, advance within, or leave the organizationRites of integration – build and reinforce common bonds among organizational membersRites of enhancement – let organizations publicly recognize and reward employees’ contributions and thus strengthen their commitment to organizational values
55Stories and Language Communicate organizational culture Stories reveal behaviors that are valued by the organizationIncludes how people dress, the offices they occupy, the cars they drive, and the degree of formality they use when they address one another
56Gung HoHow would Japanese management training work in the U.S.? Why does it work in Japan?Attitudes, values, and culture: the manager as a personGung HoHunt Stevenson (Michael Keaton) wants to save his town. He flies to Japan and convinces a Japanese car company (the fictional Assan Motors) to reopen a closed factory in the town of Hadleyville, PA. Assan Motors reopens the plant and a clash of Japanese and American culture and values ensues. The Japanese managers introduce uniforms, morning exercises, production efficiency and quality control to the plant. The Americans teach the Japanese about the importance of family and loyalty to each other.In this opening scene, we see examples of Japanese management training and some differences in Japanese and American cultures.How would this style of management training work in the US?Why does it work in Japan?What are some examples of cultural differences?Students should be prepared to discuss cultural differences, such as attitudes toward the company’s place in the family and the acceptance of change.