3-4 Learning Objectives Describe the nature of emotional intelligence and its role in management Define organizational culture and explain how managers both create and are influenced by organizational culture
3-5 Personality Traits Particular tendencies to feel, think, and act in certain ways that can be used to describe the personality of every individual Managers personalities influence their behavior and approach to managing people and resources
3-6 Big Five Personality Traits Figure 3.1
3-7 Managers and Traits No single trait is right or wrong for being an effective manager Effectiveness is determined by a complex interaction between the characteristics of managers and the nature of the job and organization in which they are working
3-8 Managers and Traits Personality traits that enhance managerial effectiveness in one situation may actually impair it in another
3-9 Question? What is the tendency to experience positive emotions and moods? A.Negative affectivity B.Extraversion C.Agreeableness D.Conscientiousness
3-10 Big Five Personality Traits Extraversion – tendency to experience positive emotions and moods and feel good about oneself and the rest of the world
3-11 Big Five Personality Traits Managers high in extraversion tend to be sociable, affectionate, outgoing and friendly Managers low in extraversion tend to be less inclined toward social interaction and have a less positive outlook
3-13 Big Five Personality Traits Negative affectivity – tendency to experience negative emotions and moods, feel distressed, and be critical of oneself and others
3-14 Big Five Personality Traits Managers high in negative affectivity may often feel angry and dissatisfied and complain about their own and others lack of progress Managers who are low in negative affectivity do not tend to experience many negative emotions and moods and are less pessimistic and critical of themselves and others
3-15 Measure of Negative Affectivity Figure 3.3
3-16 Big Five Personality Traits Agreeableness – tendency to get along well with others
3-17 Big Five Personality Traits Managers high in agreeableness are likable, affectionate and care about others Managers with low agreeableness may be distrustful, unsympathetic, uncooperative and antagonistic
3-18 Big Five Personality Traits Conscientiousness – tendency to be careful, scrupulous, and persevering
3-19 Big Five Personality Traits Managers high in this trait are organized and self-disciplined Managers low in this trait lack direction and self-discipline
3-20 Big Five Personality Traits Openness to Experience – tendency to be original, have broad interests, be open to a wide range of stimuli, be daring and take risks
3-21 Big Five Personality Traits Managers who are high in openness to experience may be especially likely to take risks and be innovative in their planning and decision making Managers who are low in this trait may be less prone to take risks and be more conservative in their planning and decision making
3-22 Other Personality Traits Internal locus of control Belief that you are responsible for your own fate Own actions and behaviors are major and decisive determinants of job outcomes
3-23 Other Personality Traits External locus of control Believe that outside forces are responsible for what happens to and around them Do not think their own actions make much of a difference
3-24 Other Personality Traits Self-Esteem –The degree to which people feel good about themselves and their abilities High self-esteem causes a person to feel competent, deserving and capable. Persons with low self-esteem have poor opinions of themselves and are unsure about their capabilities.
3-25 Question? What need is the extent to which an individual has a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well? A.Achievement B.Affiliation C.Power D.Extension
3-26 Other Personality Traits Need for Achievement –The extent to which an individual has a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well and meet personal standards for excellence
3-27 Other Personality Traits Need for Affiliation –The extent to which an individual is concerned about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations, being liked, and having other people get along
3-28 Other Personality Traits Need for Power –The extent to which an individual desires to control or influence others
3-29 Values, Attitudes, and Moods and Emotions Values –Describe what managers try to achieve through work and how they think they should behave Attitudes –Capture managers thoughts and feelings about their specific jobs and organizations. Moods and Emotions –Encompass how managers actually feel when they are managing
3-30 Values Terminal Values –A personal conviction about life-long goals Instrumental Values –A personal conviction about desired modes of conduct or ways of behaving
3-31 Values Value System –What a person is striving to achieve in life and how they want to behave
3-32 Figure 3.4 Source: Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: Free Press, 1973). Terminal and Instrumental Values
3-33 Attitudes Attitude –A collection of feelings and beliefs Job Satisfaction Organizational Commitment
3-34 Attitudes Job Satisfaction –A collection of feelings and beliefs that managers have about their current jobs. Managers high on job satisfaction have a positive view of their jobs. Levels of job satisfaction tend increase as managers move up in the hierarchy in an organization.
3-35 Figure 3.5 Source: R.B. Dunham and J. B. Herman, Development of a Female Face Scale for Measuring Job Satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology 60 (1975): 629–31. Sample Items from Two Measures of Satisfaction
3-36 Attitudes Organizational Citizenship Behaviors –Behaviors that are not required of organizational members but that help the firm in gaining a competitive advantage.
3-37 Attitudes Managers with high satisfaction are more likely perform these above and beyond the call of duty behaviors. Managers who are satisfied with their jobs are less likely to quit
3-38 Attitudes Organizational Commitment –The collection of feelings and beliefs that managers have about their organization as a whole
3-39 Organizational Commitment Believe in what their organizations are doing Proud of what their organizations stand for More likely to go above and beyond the call of duty Less likely to quit
3-40 Figure 3.6 Source: L. W. Porter and F. J. Smith, Organizational Commitment Questionnaire, in J. D. Cook, S. J. Hepworth, T. D. Wall, and P. B. Warr, eds., The Experience of Work: A Compendium and Review of 249 Measures and Their Use (New York: Academic Press, 1981), 84–86. A Measure of Organizational Commitment
3-41 Moods and Emotions Mood –A feeling or state of mind Positive moods provide excitement, elation, and enthusiasm. Negative moods lead to fear, distress, and nervousness.
3-42 A Measure of Positive and Negative Mood at Work Figure 3.6 Source: A. P. Brief, M. J. Burke, J. M. George, B. Robinson, and J. Webster, Should Negative Affectivity Remain an Unmeasured Variable in the Study of Job Stress? Journal of Applied Psychology 73 (1988): 193–98.
3-43 Emotional Intelligence –The ability to understand and manage ones own moods and emotions and the moods and emotions of other people. Helps managers carry out their interpersonal roles of figurehead, leader, and liaison.
3-44 Emotional Intelligence Managers with a high level of emotional intelligence are more likely to understand how they are feeling and why More able to effectively manage their feelings so that they do not get in the way of effective decision-making
3-45 Organizational Culture Shared set of beliefs, expectations, values, norms, and work routines that influence how members of an organization relate to one another and work together to achieve organizational goals
3-46 Organizational Culture When organizational members share an intense commitment to cultural values, beliefs, and routines a strong organizational culture exists When members are not committed to a shared set of values, beliefs, and routines, organizational culture is weak
3-47 Organizational Culture Attraction-Selection-Attrition Framework –A model that explains the role that founders personal characteristics play in determining organizational culture. Founders of firms tend to hire employees whose personalities that are to their own, which may or may not benefit the organization over the long- term.
3-48 Role of Values and Norms Terminal values – signify what an organization and its employees are trying to accomplish Instrumental values – guide the ways in which the organization and its members achieve organizational goals
3-49 Role of Values and Norms Managers determine and shape organizational culture through the kinds of values and norms they promote in an organization
3-50 Factors Affecting Organizational Culture
3-51 Socialization Organizational socialization – process by which newcomers learn an organizations values and norms and acquire the work behaviors necessary to perform jobs effectively
3-52 Ceremonies and Rites Formal events that recognize incidents of importance to the organization as a whole and to specific employees
3-53 Discussion Question? What are examples of events that recognize employees and their importance to the organization? Which of the following would be the most meaningful to the employee and to the organization? A.Money B.Stock Options C.Plaque D.Parking Space
3-54 Ceremonies and Rites Rites of passage – determine how individuals enter, advance within, or leave the organization Rites of integration – build and reinforce common bonds among organizational members Rites of enhancement – let organizations publicly recognize and reward employees contributions and thus strengthen their commitment to organizational values
3-55 Stories and Language Communicate organizational culture Stories reveal behaviors that are valued by the organization Includes how people dress, the offices they occupy, the cars they drive, and the degree of formality they use when they address one another
3-56 Gung Ho How would Japanese management training work in the U.S.? Why does it work in Japan?