Presentation on theme: "Center for the School of the Future"— Presentation transcript:
1Center for the School of the Future Bullying PreventionTim G. SmithDirector of OutreachCenter for the School of the FutureUtah State UniversityMy name is Tim Smith. I am the Director of Outreach at the Center for the School of the Future at Utah State University. The Center is a research Center dedicated to helping to improve public education by identifying, researching, and developing best practices.I want to makes something very clear today as I begin discussion on this topic. Nothing I present here today will make a difference in neighborhoods, in schools, or in the home without your efforts. For me the purpose of conferences is to broaden your perspective and energize your efforts. I hope that there will be something in this presentation that will provide you with some tools for making a difference.
2Bullying Defined“Being bullied is not just an unpleasant rite of passage through childhood. It’s a public health problem that merits attention. People who are bullied as children are more likely to suffer from depression and low self esteem, well into adulthood, and the bullies themselves are more likely to engage in criminal behavior later in life”(Duane Alexander, Director, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development)
4Bullying Defined“Bullying occurs when a student or group of students targets an individual repeatedly over time, using physical or psychological aggression to dominate the victim (Hoover & Oliver, 1996; Rigby, 1995; USDOE, 1998).”
5Bullying Defined“A student is being bullied or victimized when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more students” (Elliot, 2002)
6Bullying at Large Bullying in families Bullying in the workplace Bullying in societyBullying in schools
8Some Data 1 in 10 students in grades 4-6 are bullied regularly 90% middle school students report observing bullying while 80% claim they have been victims16,000 students miss school every day due to fear of bullies (Lee, 1993)
9Bullying is a symptom of a much larger problem of antisocial behavior
10Antisocial BehaviorRecurrent violations of socially prescribed patterns of behaviorHostility, aggression, defiance, willingness to violate rulesAversive to othersDeviation from accepted rules and expected standardsDeviance across a range of settings
11Antisocial Behavior Facts and Findings Involves more boys than girlsEarly antisocial behavior predicts adolescent delinquencyAntisocial behavior persisting beyond third grade is chronic problemAntisocial children are at risk for long term problems70% of youth identified as antisocial are arrested within 3 yrs. of leaving schoolThe vast majority of antisocial children are boys; antisocial behavior in girls is less evident and expressed differently than in boys (i.e.., antisocial behavior among girls is more often self-directed than outer-directed).There are two types of antisocial behavior (overt and covert). Overt involves acts against people; covert involves acts against property and/or self-abuse. By adolescence, many at-risk children display both forms, which escalates their risk status substantially.Antisocial behavior early in a child’s school career is the single best predictor of delinquency in adolescence.Three years after leaving school, 70% of antisocial youth have been arrested at least once.The stability of aggressive behavior over a decade is approximately equal to that for intelligence. The correlation for IQ over ten years is .70; for aggressive behavior, it approximates .80.Antisocial children can be identified very accurately at age 3 or 4.The more severe the antisocial behavior pattern, the more stable it is over the long term and across settings (for example,home and school); severity is also associated with higher risk for negative developmental outcomes and for police contacts/arrest.If an antisocial behavior pattern is not changed by the end of grade 3, it should be treated as a chronic condition, much like diabetes. That is, it cannot be cured but can be managed with the appropriate supports and continuing interventions.Early intervention in home, school, and community is the single best hope we have of diverting children from this path.Children who grow up antisocial are at severe risk for a host of long-term, negative developmental outcomes, including school dropout, vocational adjustment problems, drug and alcohol abuse, relationship problems, and higher hospitalization and mortality rates.Using three measures of school-related adjustment in grade 5, the arrest status of a high-risk sample can be correctly predicted in 80% of cases five years later. These measures are (1) a 5-minute teacher rating of social skills, (2) two 20-minute observations of negative-aggressive behavior on the playground involving peers, and (3) the number of discipline contacts with the principal’s office that are written up and placed in the child’s permanent school record.
13TrendsTeenage violence has more than doubled in the past ten years (Gegax & Bai, 1999)Each year between 2,500 and 3,000 teenagers are arrested and charged in the death of others teenagers and adults.Between 1985 and 1994 the arrests fo year-old children and youth for homicide, rape, robbery, and assault increased by 70% (Walsh, 1997).In a single month, one in nine of the nation’s high school students brought a weapon to school (Burke, 1998).
15Role of the MediaBy the time children start school, they will have seen over 8,000 murders on television and over 100,000 violent acts. By the time they graduate from high school, these numbers will double (American Academy of Child and Adolescents Psychiatry, 1995)Lyrics from Michael Mather , best known as Eminem, talk about sticking nails through eyelids and slitting parents’ throats.Children have access to video games like Doom, Diablo, and Kingpin, which advertises “multiplayer gang bang death” and “see the damage done including exit wounds”
16Role of the MediaMedia has led to increased desensitization to violence and victims of violence (American Psychological Association, 1993).Youth accept violence as a way to solve problems (American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1995)Increased aggressiveness and antisocial behavior.Teenage life is defined by the media.Increased fear of becoming a victimIncreased appetite for more violence.
17Role of the FamilyChildren increasingly live in dysfunctional familiesAbused children grow up impulsive, aggressive, antisocial, and lacking in empathy and sensitivity to the people and world around them.Over half of today’s teenagers have lived through their parents’ divorce and reside with a single parent or divide their time between two households.Sixty-three percent of teenagers live in households where both parents work outside the home.Among all the issues adolescents rank as their top concerns, the number one issue is loneliness. (Stevenson & Schneider)
18Role of the Family Family history with problem behavior Family management problemsFamily conflictFavorable parental attitudes or involvement in problem behaviorFamily members don't spend much time togetherLack of parental supervisionLack of clear expectations, limits and consequences
19Role of the Community Alcohol and other drugs readily available Laws and ordinances are unclear or inconsistently enforcedNorms are unclearResidents feel little sense of "connection" to communityNeighborhood disorganizationHigh mobilityExtreme economic deprivationLack of strong social institutionsLack of monitoring youths' activitiesInadequate media portrayals
20Role of the SchoolLack of clear expectations, both academic and behavioralLack of commitment or sense of belonging at schoolAcademic failureParents and community members not actively involvedPunitive environment
21High Risk Environments PovertyDysfunctional familiesChildhood abuseFailure to bond with adults or develop positive relationships with adultsExposure to media violenceSchool failure and school problems
23Toddler and PreschoolHas many temper tantrums in a single day, or several lasting more than 15 minutes, and often cannot be calmed by parents, family members, or other caregiversHas many aggressive outbursts, often for no reasonIs extremely active, impulsive, and fearlessConsistently refuses to follow directions and listen to adultsDoes not seem attached to parentsFrequently watches violence on television, engages in play that has violent themes, or is cruel toward other children
24Elementary Child Has trouble paying attention and concentrating Often disrupts classroom activitiesDoes poorly in schoolFrequently gets into fights with other children in schoolReacts to disappointments, criticism, or teasing with extreme and intense anger, blame, or revengeWatches many violent television shows and movies or plays a lot of violent video games
25Elementary ChildHas few friends and is often rejected by other children because of behaviorMakes friends with other children known to be unruly or aggressiveConsistently does not listen to adultsIs not sensitive to the feelings of othersIs cruel or violent toward pets or other animals
26Preteen and Adolescent Consistently does not listen to authority figuresPays not attention to the feelings or rights of othersMistreats people and seems to rely on physical violence or threats of violence to solve problemsOften expresses the feeling that life has treated him or her unfairlyDoes poorly in school and often skips classesMisses school frequently for unidentifiable reason
27Preteen and Adolescent Gets suspended from or drops out of schoolJoins a gang, gets involved in fighting, stealing, or destroying propertyDrinks alcohol and/or uses inhalants or drugs
29Recent research has shown that the risk of youth developing patterns of various types of antisocial behavior, including the use of alcohol and other drugs, aggressive and violent behavior, and gang activity, can be lessened by developing certain protective assets and skills.These include social and self-management skills, academic proficiency including reading, and improved relationships with family members and school personnel (Gardner & Resnick, 1996; Hawkins & Catalano, 1992; Schorr, 1988; West, Young, Mitchem & Calderella, 1998).
35Family Protective Factors Close family relationshipsConsistency of parentingCopes with stress in a positive wayEducation is valued, encouraged, and parents are involvedShare family responsibilities, including chores and decision makingFamily members are nurturing and support each otherClear expectations, limits and consequences
36Community Protective Factors Community service opportunities available for youthLaws and ordinances are consistently enforcedInformal social controlOpportunities exist for community involvementPositive relationships with other adults encouragedStrong religious or social compositionResources (housing, healthcare, childcare, jobs, recreation, etc.) are availableNeighbors share responsibility for monitoring youth
37School Protective Factors Communicates high academic and behavioral expectationsEncourages goal-setting, academic achievement and positive social developmentPositive attitudes toward schoolFosters active involvement of students, parents and community members
38PRINCIPLES Clear, consistent expectations and consequences Positive adult relationshipsTeaching emphasisAcademic SkillsSocial SkillsSelf-management SkillsRecognition for appropriate behavior
39Parent SupportStudent achievement related to parent support is not limited to the early years, but is significant at all ages and grade levels.Children of involved parents achieve more, regardless of socioeconomic status, ethnic/racial background, or the parents’ education level.Children of involved parents have higher grades, test scores and better attendance, and they are more likely to graduate from high school and have greater enrollments in post-secondary education.
40Parent SupportWhen it comes to student behavior, children of involved parents exhibit more positive attitudes and behavior.Children of involved parents have fewer instances of alcohol use, violence, and antisocial behavior.
41Helping the Victim The Parent Teach and provide strategies for appropriately avoiding and escaping situations.Develop strong relationships with adults so they feel comfortable in talking.The SchoolDon’t turn a blind eye to bullyingListen to parents concernsTrain students on what to do if they observe bullying.