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Format of the American Psychological Association 6th Edition

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1 Format of the American Psychological Association 6th Edition
Dr. Lincoln Format of the American Psychological Association 6th Edition APA Manual Dr. Lincoln

2 APA Format Rules for manuscript preparation that contribute to clear communication Commonly accepted guidelines Each chapter provides different kinds of information, Which is arranged in the sequence of manuscript preparation through publication Dr. Lincoln Dr. Lincoln

3 Manuscript Organization
Writing for publication is not easy Good papers are carefully designed and managed The content is important and of good quality Before beginning a paper consider Length required Headings – the hierarchy of the ideas to be presented Tone – interesting and compelling, not dull or lack style Dr. Lincoln

4 Order of Manuscript Pages
Title page with title, author’s name, institutional affiliation, and running head Abstract (separate page) Text (begins on a new page) References Appendixes Author Note Footnotes (list together, starting on a separate page) Tables Figure Captions Figures Dr. Lincoln

5 Title Page Summarizes main idea of paper
Concise statement of main topic A title should be fully explanatory when standing alone Principal function to inform readers about the study Avoid words that serve no useful purpose Recommended length for a title is words Dr. Lincoln

6 Abstract A brief, comprehensive summary
Readers can survey the contents of an article (or paper) quickly Most important paragraph in paper Should be readable, well organized, brief and self- contained Should be about 120 – 250 words Dr. Lincoln

7 Abstract (of a research paper)
Should describe the following: Problem Subjects Methods Findings Conclusions and implications or applications Dr. Lincoln

8 Introduction Introduce the problem Describe the research strategy
It is not labeled!!! Develop the background, an appropriate history and priority of the work of others Tells what you did in the closing paragraphs of the introduction Dr. Lincoln

9 Methods (for primary research papers)
Describes in detail how study was done Identify subsections Usually descriptions of participants, materials and procedures Dr. Lincoln

10 Results Summarizes data collected and statistics used
Main results presented first Details follow; enough to justify the conclusions Use tables and figures to report data Can enhance readability of complex data They must be mentioned in the text Present relevant statistics Dr. Lincoln

11 Discussion Evaluate and interpret implications of results
Emphasize any theoretical consequences of the results Be sure to check spelling and grammar throughout the paper, and use a thesaurus to find interesting alternative words Dr. Lincoln

12 References Citations document statements made about the literature
All citations in paper must appear in the reference list All references on the reference list must be cited in text Choose references carefully and cite them accurately Dr. Lincoln

13 Appendix Use it for detailed descriptions of certain material not needed in or distracting in the body of the paper. An unpublished test Complicated mathematical proofs Lists It should help reader understand, evaluate or replicate your work. Dr. Lincoln Dr. Lincoln

14 Author Note Identifies specific information such as
The departmental affiliation of each author Sources of financial support Acknowledgement of contributions of others to the study Disclosure of specifics, such as the bases of a study, if results have been presented at a meeting, etc. Dr. Lincoln

15 Expression of Ideas Essential to use correct grammar and professional writing style Orderly presentations of ideas Consistent in use of verb tense Unbiased language Correct spelling and punctuation Dr. Lincoln

16 Abbreviations Some common scientific abbreviations a.m. ante meridiem
cm centimeter dB decible hr hour in. inch IQ intelligence quotient mg milligram p.m. post meridiem ppm parts per million s second Dr. Lincoln

17 Use of Periods with Abbreviations
Use periods with Initials of names (P. R. Jones). Abbrev. for United States when used as an adjective (U.S. Navy) Latin abbreviations (a.m., cf., i.e., vs.) Dr. Lincoln

18 Use of Periods with Abbreviations
Do not use periods with Abbreviations of state names (NY; OH; Washington, DC) in reference list entries Capital letter abbreviations and acronyms (APA, NIMH, IQ) (p. 110) Metric and nonmetric measurement abbreviations (cd, cm, ft, hr, lb, kg, min, ml) Exception – inch abbreviated as in. Without the period it could be misread Abbreviations for routes of administration icv, im, ip, iv, sc Dr. Lincoln

19 Plurals of Abbreviations
Usually you add an “s” alone, but not italicized Without an apostrophe IQs Eds. Vols. Ms ps ns Exceptions Do not add an s to make abbreviations of units of measurement pleural For example: 3 cm, not 3 cms To form the pleural of the reference abbreviation p. (page) Write pp. Do not add an s Dr. Lincoln

20 Page Header & Running Head
The running head appears on every page In the page header at the left margin With the page number at the right margin No more than the first 50 characters of the title should appear All in uppercase letters Dr. Lincoln

21 Headings Headings indicate the organization of a manuscript and establish the importance of each topic. Regardless of the number of levels of subheadings within a section, they should follow the same top- down progression. Each section begins with the highest level of heading. Even if one section may have fewer levels of subheading than another Dr. Lincoln

22 Headings The APA Manual discusses the 5 levels of headings
6th edition - see pages 62-63 Each heading level is numbered The heading structure for all sections follows the same top-down progression Each section starts with the highest level of heading Dr. Lincoln

23 Headings Level 1 Heading Level 2 Heading Level 3 Heading
Bolded, Centered Uppercase and Lowercase words Level 2 Heading Bolded at the left margin with upper and lowercase words Level 3 Heading Bolded, indented, with only the first letter of the first word in caps, and ending with a period Dr. Lincoln

24 Headings Level 4 Heading Level 5 Heading
Bolded, indented, italicized, with only the first letter of the first word in caps and ending with a period. Level 5 Heading CENTERED UPPERCASE HEADING Dr. Lincoln

25 Levels of Heading The heading structure for all sections follows the same top-down progression Each section starts with the highest level of heading. Example: Method Level 1 Sample and Participant Selection Level 2 Assessments and Measures Level 2 Q-sort measure of inhibition. Level 3 Life history calendar. Level 3 Measures of time. Level 4 Dr. Lincoln

26 Quotations When quoting, Citing sources within the narrative
always provide the author, year, and specific page citation in the text. Reproduce it word for word. Incorporate a short quotation (less than 40 words) in text, and enclose with double quotation marks. “ ” For quotations of 40 or more words Omit quotations marks and use block quote format Dr. Lincoln

27 When to use quotation marks
Use double quote marks To introduce a word or phrase used as a comment, as slang, or as an invented or coined expression. The first time the word or phrase is used, then not needed To set off the title of an article or chapter in a periodical or book when the title is mentioned in the text Dr. Lincoln

28 Double or single quotation marks
for quotations in text Single – within double quotation marks to set off material that, in the original source, was enclosed in double quotation marks In block quotes (40 or more words) – do not use any quotation marks use double marks to enclosed any quoted material within a block quote. Dr. Lincoln

29 Block Quotes 40 or more words Free-standing block of typewritten lines
Omit quotation marks Start a block quote on a new line Indent it 5 to 7 spaces from left margin Type subsequent lines flush with indent Type entire quotation double- spaced If quote is more than one paragraph Indent first line of 2nd and additional paragraphs 5-7 spaces from the new margin. Dr. Lincoln

30 Block quote According to Salka (2004), Leadership is what makes organizations effective. It’s the essential spark that makes things happen. Without leadership, an organization is just a loosely connected group of people operating without a unifying focus or coordinating mission, pursuing different goals, flailing in a hundred sometimes contradictory directions. (p. 7) The leadership role includes organizational skills, such as having a vision, being able to set the strategic direction of the firm, able to clearly communicate goals and objectives, and being responsible and accountable. Dr. Lincoln

31 Omitting material from quotes
Use 3 ellipsis points (…) within a sentence to indicate that you have omitted material from the original source in a sentence. Use 4 points (….) to indicate any omission between two sentences. The manager felt that employees needed to have increased responsibilities. Dr. Lincoln

32 Citation of sources of quotes
Direct quote in text – Provide author, year and page # in parentheses Paragraph numbers may be used in place of page number for electronic text When paraphrasing or referring to an idea contained in another work, it is not required to provide a page number. Dr. Lincoln

33 Date If more than the year is listed, then include the complete listing in the following order Year, month, day If no date is provided identify this as no date (n.d.) Dr. Lincoln

34 Citation of sources of quotes
In mid-sentence, cite source in parentheses immediately after the quote marks, then continue the sentence. “Four types of culture are adaptability, achievement, clan and bureaucratic” (Daft, 2003, p. 98), and these are illustrated in Exhibit 3.7. Dr. Lincoln

35 Citation of sources of quotes
At the end of a sentence close the quoted passage with quote marks, cite the quoted source in parentheses after the quotation marks, and end with a period or other punctuation outside the final parenthesis. (p. 121) At the end of a block quote – cite the quoted source in parentheses after the final punctuation mark. Dr. Lincoln

36 Reference citations in text (see pp 174-176)
One author Jones (1997); (Walker, 2001) In 1997, Jones One work, multiple authors 2 authors, cite both names every time used 3,4 or 5 authors, cite all authors 1st time used, In subsequent citations, only surname of first author followed by “et al.” and the year Dr. Lincoln

37 Reference citations in text (see pp 175-176)
6 or more authors Cite only surname of 1st author followed by “et al.” and the year for first and subsequent citations Groups as authors Corporations, government agencies, etc. Usually spelled out each time they appear in a citation Give enough info in citation for reader to locate entry in reference list Dr. Lincoln

38 Reference citations in text (see pp 176-177)
Works with no author Cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year Use double quotation marks around the title of an article or chapter, and italicize the title of a periodical, book, brochure or report. Anonymous author Cite in text the word Anonymous followed by a comma and the date (Anonymous, 2009) Note: In the reference list, an anonymous work is alphabetized by the word Anonymous. Dr. Lincoln

39 Author Variations Associations Author as publisher Collaboration
Corporate author Editors Government agency of institute Group authors Multiple authors No author Dr. Lincoln

40 Personal Communications
Letters, memos, some electronic communications ( ), telephone conversations, etc. Since they cannot be recovered, they are not included in the reference list. Cite in text only. **Provide as exact a date as possible. According to B. Smith (personal communication, September 2, 2009) Dr. Lincoln

41 Secondary Sources (see p. 178)
Citing a work discussed in a secondary source Put the secondary source in the reference list. In text, name the original work, and give a citation for the secondary source Smith and Jones study (as cited in Brown, Adams, Green & Walters, 2008) revealed some unusual findings. Dr. Lincoln

42 Reference List (see p. 180) Provides the information to retrieve each source Include only sources used in the paper Sources listed alphabetically Data must be correct and complete List is double-spaced Use a hanging indent Entries start flush left with margin 2nd and subsequent lines indented 5-7 spaces Dr. Lincoln

43 Order of References in Reference List (p. 181)
Alphabetical by surname of first author For several works by same first author Arranged by year of publication, earliest first Jones, L. L. (1996). Jones, L. L. (1998). One-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname Brown, T. (2004) Brown, T. & Green, A. (1999) Dr. Lincoln

44 Order of References in Reference List
References by same author with the same publication date, are arranged alphabetically by title Lower case letters (a,b,c) are placed immediately after the year in the parentheses Jones, B. G. (1999a). After the study Jones, B. G. (1999b). Framing the study . . . Dr. Lincoln

45 Order of works with group authors or with no authors (p. 183)
Alphabetize group authors (associations, gov. agencies) by first significant word of the name Full, official names should be used If work is anonymous Entry begins with the word Anonymous If there is no author The title moves to the author position The entry is alphabetized by the first significant word of the title Dr. Lincoln

46 Reference list citation for a chapter in a book
A nonperiodical is a book To cite a chapter in a book, the format is slightly different Author, A., & Author, B. (1999). Title of chapter. In F. Editor, G, Editor, & H. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp ). Location: Publisher. Note that the order of the editor names are listed first initial, then last name, which is just the opposite of the way an author is listed (last name first, then initial of first name) Dr. Lincoln

47 ON-LINE SOURCES E-mail communications Web site
An article from an on-line journal An on-line magazine article Database accessed from Web Dr. Lincoln

48 Examples E-mail communications Web site
Cited as personal communications, only in text as Taylor (personal communication, February 3, 2007). Web site Cited in text (not on reference list) There is a good nursing website that offers many free benefits to healthcare professionals (http://www.NursingCenter.com) Dr. Lincoln

49 Examples On-line article from journal
Burns, J. (1999). Technology Issues. Business Quarterly, 11(4), Retrieved January 4, 2004 from: Note that the journal name and volume number are in italics Note: a retrieval date may not be necessary Dr. Lincoln

50 Examples On-line magazine article, no author
Business and technology. (1998, December). Forbes, 11, Retrieved March 1, 2008 from: Reminder: The journal name and volume number are italicized; A retrieval date may not be necessary Dr. Lincoln

51 Order of citation elements for a journal
Author – last name, first name initial Do not use titles, such as Dr., Ph.D., R.N., etc. Date of publication Title of article Name of journal Volume number Issue number Page number(s) Dr. Lincoln

52 Online Reminders Format similar to printed reference material with website info added at end of reference Give date of retrieval – only for sources with limited circulation or for sources that may change over time. Web documents may change, move or be deleted Retrieved May 3, 2007 from Note: in many cases, a retrieval date will not be necessary. Do not use a period at end of web address It may get confused with the address Be careful in use of online sources Dr. Lincoln

53 Online Reminders For databases
Database information (e.g., ProQuest, EBSCOhost) is not needed Databases vary among institutions Use the DOI record for electronic references, not the name of the database. Example: Jones, N. & Lynch, J. (2007). Reasons for going green. International Journal of Contemporary Science, 16(2), doi: / Dr. Lincoln

54 THE DOI (p. 188-189) The DOI – digital object identifier
Provides a means of persistent identification for managing information on digital networks. It identifies content and provides a persistent link to its location on the Internet All DOI numbers begin with a 10 And contain a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash Dr. Lincoln

55 Online Sources If the document does not have a DOI Example
Use the URL of the publisher’s website Example Daniels, D. (2005). 50 best companies. Fortune, 149(13), Retrieved from Cite page numbers if available or a paragraph number for in-text citations Dr. Lincoln

56 Citation of Online References
The paragraph symbol ¶ is not used with in-text citations for online sources. The abbreviation para. should be used. According to Jones (2009), “. . . nurses will make more money in 2010” (para. 16). Dr. Lincoln

57 The URL It is the most important element
If it does not work, the reader cannot access the information The credibility of the paper will suffer See APA Manual, pp Dr. Lincoln

58 More examples Online, no date, government document Business website
Internal Revenue Service (IRS). (n.d.). Notice lifetime learning credit. Retrieved March 22, 2004, from http//:www.irs.gov/individualsarticle0,id=96273,00.html Business website Herman Miller Inc. (2002). Environments for learning. Retrieved April 22, 2003, from Dr. Lincoln

59 More examples Online dictionary
Merriam-Webster Inc. (2003). Online dictionary. Retrieved April 10, 2003, from Dr. Lincoln

60 For more complete information 
Dr. Lincoln


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