Presentation on theme: "Lattice energy Born-haber cycle A2 – CHEMICAL ENERGETICS."— Presentation transcript:
Lattice energy Born-haber cycle A2 – CHEMICAL ENERGETICS
Lattice energy Lattice energy of an ionic crystal H latt heat energy evolved when 1 mole of crystalline solid is formed from its separate gaseous ions under standard condition (298K and 1 atm). E.g : Na + (g) + Cl - (g) Na + Cl - (s) H latt < 0 Provide a measure of strength of ionic bond between ions in the crystal lattice. Higher lattice energy (more exothermic), stronger bond.
Lattice energy Factors affecting magnitude of lattice energies: a) Ionic charge increase, more exothermic, higher lattice energy. b) Ionic radius decrease, more exothermic, higher lattice energy. c) Crystal structure Lattice energy (q + x q - ) (r + + r - ) CompoundLattice energy / kJmol -1 NaF-915 NaCl-776 NaBr-742 NaI-699 MgCl MgO-3933
Electron affinity Electron affinity the enthalpy change when 1 mole of electrons is added to one mole of atoms or ions in the gaseous state. Is the measure of attraction of the atom or ion for the extra electron. First electron affinity enthalpy change when 1 mole of electron is added to 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form singly- charged negative ions. X(g) + e - X - (g) H = 1 st electron affinity < 0 Second electron affinity is endothermic: X - (g) + e - X 2- (g) H = 2 nd electron affinity > 0
Born-Haber Cycle Lattice energy cannot be determined directly – use Born-Haber Cycle to determine. Born-Haber Cycle for formation of NaCl :
Born-Haber Cycle Alternatively energy level diagram can be constructed. Constructing Born-Haber cycle (energy level diagram) of NaCl: Stage 1 : Formation of NaCl Stage 2 : Atomisation of sodium Stage 3 : Ionisation of sodium Stage 4 : Atomisation of chlorine Stage 5 : Formation of chloride ion (electron affinity) H < 0, arrows pointing down. H < 0, arrows pointing up.
Born-Haber cycle (energy level diagram) of NaCl By Hess Law: (-364) + H latt [Na + Cl - (s)] kJ mol -1 = (-121) + (-500) + (-108) + (-411) kJ mol -1. *Make sure all arrows are pointing downwards when calculating H latt.
Aqueous Solution of Ionic Crystals. When ionic crystals dissolve in water : M + X - (s) + aq M + (aq) + X - (aq) Dissolution of ionic solid (e.g. NaCl) in water occur in 2 imaginary steps: 1) Crystal lattice breaks down forming isolated gaseous ions. Energy (equal to lattice energy) absorbed to break ionic bonds and pull ions apart. 2) Hydration of gaseous ions. Energy (equal to hydration energy) released when bonds formed between H 2 O molecules and ions.
3 methods to calculate H sol. 1. Equation method: Step 1 : Na + Cl - (s) Na + (g) + Cl - (g), H latt Step 2 : Na + (g) + Cl - (g) + aq Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq), H hyd Na + Cl - (s) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) H sol If H hyd > H latt H sol < 0 salt soluble in H 2 O. If H hyd 0 salt insoluble in H 2 O. 2. Enthalpy cycle. H sol = H hyd - H latt
3. Born-Haber cylcle. Lattice energy of NaCl = -776 kJmol -1 Enthalpy change of hydration/kJmol -1 : Na + = -390; Cl - = -381
Exercise : Using the Born-Haber cycle method, calculate the enthalpy change of solution, H sol, of LiCl. Predict its solubility of in water. Lattice energy of LiCl = -848 kJmol -1 Enthalpy change of hydration/kJmol -1 : Li + = -499; Cl - = -381