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IRRIGATION OF DATE PALM AND ASSOCIATED CROPS IN SAUDI ARABIA Hussein M. Al-Ghobari Abdulrasoul M. Alomran College of Food Sciences and Agric. King Saud.

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Presentation on theme: "IRRIGATION OF DATE PALM AND ASSOCIATED CROPS IN SAUDI ARABIA Hussein M. Al-Ghobari Abdulrasoul M. Alomran College of Food Sciences and Agric. King Saud."— Presentation transcript:

1 IRRIGATION OF DATE PALM AND ASSOCIATED CROPS IN SAUDI ARABIA Hussein M. Al-Ghobari Abdulrasoul M. Alomran College of Food Sciences and Agric. King Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

2 List of Contents List of Figures List of Tables Introduction Date palm production in Saudi Arabia Food Uses Other Uses Date palm varieties Location and climate Land and Water Resources Agricultural Practices for Date Palm Husbandry Propagation Methods Root System

3 Land and Soil preparation Plantation of offshoots Soil salinity and date palm Date palm spacing Fertilization Requirement Pest and Diseases in Date Palm Financial and economic importance of date palm production in Saudi Arabia Financial and Economic Importance Dried dates production in Saudi Arabia 2000 Categories of Palms Saudi Arabia is the biggest producer 29 National Factories Encouraging investors

4 Irrigation of Date Palm and Associated Crops History of date palm irrigation Current Irrigation Management and Practices Irrigation methods Irrigation management Irrigation Water Management Water resources Conventional Resources Non-conventional resources Irrigation water demand management Salinity of Irrigation water

5 Classification of irrigation water quality Soil salinity Salinity and date palm production Leaching requirement Irrigation Scheduling Irrigation Scheduling of Date Palm Irrigation Scheduling Methods Estimation Evapotranspiration Estimating Crop ET Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration (ETr) Crop Coefficients Deficit Irrigation

6 Irrigation water use efficiency Constrains Facing the Development of Date Palm in Saudi Arabia Irrigation frequency and its variability in time Critical stages of water stress in the soil and their influence on dates Institutional responsibilities Irrigation Institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Agriculture Subsidies Technical Support Operation and Maintenance Considerations and recommendations CONCLUSIONS References

7 Date palm production in Saudi Arabia Table 1. Estimated Number of Date Palm Trees by Region for the Years 1999 to 2005. 20052004200320021999Region 49725294941944470283044934104160565Riyadh 20274311773830189010019239831781466Makkah 28439022810870270137224836392299666Madina 39225613790032318870533702033120558Qasseim 25446522919608290711527862442579856 Eastern Province 18299331900168169869124728862289709Assir 870023899863895940677803627595Tabuk 16968041780201198809114202431315040Hail 20471826194218911751 Northern Frontier 736087381117283667746Jizan 608488443709387136472513437512Najiran 14517712489488952111192102956Albaha 1155076892174862065627229580768Jouf 2262598322287857213241112084960219305188Total

8 Estimated area and production of dates crop by region in Saudi Arabia (Ministry of Agriculture, 2006.) 2001200220032004 2005 * Seasons AREAPROD.AREAPROD.AREAPROD.AREAPROD.AREAPROD.Region 3355220770633432209938331282123983736121306538409223290Riyadh 9191633059072697348981681099773690021068664680Makkah 1718190697175369029818199986641881910090619384100991Madenah 3372812645134402130041342771384703580816084434176172863Qaseem 1208510347011766104269110431186671163912971111221134735Eastern 806180914801682802839280444715472666656950289Aseer 446427300471527816467829691443730078395244582Tabuk 126536904912924682321397985159148899728417000104001Hail 17618661284146912101Northern 318147318130205298166221186243Jazan 307813426304513462343814125339017922314620131Najran 698351268030067122729963354712535027Baha 407331849406529746437835251438945978475049554Jouf 139099817887139979829540141421884088148801941293150744970488Kingdom

9 Table 3. Means of Area and Production of Date Palm Means for Season 2001 - 2005 Regions Prod./Area Mean PROD. Mean AREA ton h -1 tonhectare 6.063139213279.435176.4Riyadh 7.019055669669540.6Makkah 5.28491396311.218223.8Madenah 4.226839145733.834478.2Qaseem 10.23049118170.411550.8Eastern 9.612353734237638.4Aseer 7.16834531893.44449.2Tabuk 5.9307868474514289Hail 6.04761976.212.6Northern 0.870914207.8238.6Jazan 4.91184715813.23219.4Najran 4.1386443564.2861.2Baha 8.88376838475.64331Jouf 6.170867888659.2144008.8Kingdom

10 Date palm varieties: Location and climate Land and Water Resources

11 Agricultural Practices for Date Palm Husbandry Propagation Methods: Land and Soil preparation: Plantation of offshoots Soil salinity and date palm Date palm spacing Fertilization Requirement Pest and Diseases in Date Palm:

12 Financial and Economic Importance Dried dates production in Saudi Arabia

13 Irrigation of Date Palm and Associated Crops History of date palm irrigation

14

15 Figure 15. Unpaved canals used to carry irrigation water to the field. Figure. 16. Cement canals used carry irrigation water to field.

16 Current Irrigation Management and Practices

17 Figure17. Irrigation of date palm tree by drip system using orifice emitter method Figure18. Irrigation of date palm tree by drip system using bubbler method.

18 Figure19. Irrigation of date palm tree using systems

19 Figure 20. Irrigation of date palm tree by drip system using spray method

20 Irrigation management Irrigation Water Management Water resources

21 Table 9. Growth of Water Use in Saudi Arabia, 1980– 2010 (millions of cubic meters) TotalAgricultural (per cent) (per cent) Domestic and industrial (per cent) 2,35278.71,85021.35021980 27,23993.9425,5896.061,6501990 31,69694.129,8265.91,8701992 18,46988.8316,40611.172,0631997 14,10079.4311,20020.572,9002000 18,30080.3314,70019.673,6002010 Sources: MOP 1990; Dabbagh and Abderrahman 1997 (agricultural and total use, 1990 and 1992).

22 Table 10. Water supply in Saudi Arabia, 1990–1997 (millions of cubic meters) % a 1997 1992 1990 122,14072,14013 2,100 2,100 Surface water and shallow aquifers (renewable) 8315,376 90 9028,576 83 8324,489 Groundwater (non- renewable) 4795 2795 3540Desalination 11850.6 185 1850.7110 Treated wastewater effluents 18,496 31,696 27,239Total Sources: MOP 1990 estimate; Dabbagh and Abderrahman 1997. a Percentages do not add to 100 due to rounding.

23 Figure 22. Classification of agriculture holdings per water source (Ministry of Agriculture,1999)

24 Salinity of Irrigation water Table13. Salient Features of Different Aquifers (Ministry of agriculture and water, 1985) Location (Region of Saudi Arabia) Discharge ( Ls -1 ) Water Depth ( m ) Aquifers Central - North 100 150 – 1500 Al-Saq Southern 40 – 80 150 – 900 Wajid Central - North 15 – 20 60 – 2500 Tabuk Central 60 – 120 1200 – 2000 Minjur Central 60 – 120 100Dhruma Northern 25 – 50 30 – 200 Biyadh Central - East 85 – 110 100 – 800 Wasia Eastern 50 – 100 160 – 200 Umm-ER- Radhuma Eastern 7 – 22 50 – 100 Dammam Eastern NANeogene West – Riyadh 10 – 18 NAJilh East – El-Qawayh 7 – 23 NAKhuff Central - East 30 – 32 NAAruma CentralNANAJubalia WesternNANABasalt Western - Costal 50NAAluuvial NA, data not available.

25 Table 14. Mean Chemical Composition of Ground waters Mean Composition ( mg L -1 ) Aquifer Clas s Adj SAR adjR Na + SAR Cl - /S0 4 2- Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ O3-O3-O3-O3- SO 4 2 - Cl - HCO 3 - Na + Mg 2 + Ca 2 + TDSEC dSm -1 Sam ple No. C4 S2 13.867.186.862.512.84--36868312944249232 195 0 2.8251Al-Saq C3 S2 6.543.773.101.242.75--29426918814928128 120 0 2.2187Wajid C3 S2 8.094.284.130.671.56--60330517119640104 136 0 1.6839Tabuk C4 S2 7.084.023.471.091.62--41933816520460162 139 0 1.5654Minjur C4 S2 9.286.044.071.251.51105653606169358140353 185 0 2.7438Dhruma C4 S2 8.795.683.230.692.42151270640186404208839 477 0 7.44163Biyadh C4 S2 31.8313.9512.530.493.1531858313189 121 0 102535 486 0 8.24347Wasia C4 S2 15.017.546.361.441.73--703750189547123355 295 0 3.86469 Umm- ER- Radhum a C4 S2 13.946.715.930.791.4912721420178471115285 266 0 3.97441 Damma m C4 S2 13.516.495.980.990.9838865630183495157256 269 0 3.45538Neogene C4 S2 12.036.165.140.541.46--1950785139532198481 379 0 5.0761Jilh* C4 S2 13.226.555.600.831.21--1670 103 0 150589227457 385 0 4.8967Khuff* C4 S2 11.655.925.110.961.595666947318737293247 212 0 3.1639Aruma* C4 S2 9.274.774.032.251.29207674 112 0 217296107230 247 0 3.5037Jubailia* C3 S2 14.106.626.813.680.804027474622440087116 183 0 2.1345Basalt* C4 S2 13.746.806.190.831.2615449275206437100210 168 0 2.60 357 6 Alluvial*

26 Table 17. Physical and chemical properties of some sites in Eastern Oasis of Al-Hassa region under date palm cultivation ECpH CaCO 3 Organic Carbon ClaySiltsand TextureDepth(cm) dSm -1 Paste ------------------- % --------------------------- Site 1 ( 22 yrs palm ) Typic Haplaquolls 2.48.238.30.6815.227.757.1SL 0 – 65 3.08.141.50.4319.722.757.6SL 65 – 130 2.98.312.60.0610.21.388.6LS130+ Site 2 ( 40 yrs palm + rice ) Aquic Torriorthents 4.08.054.60.3119.236.744.1L 0 -30 5.28.152.60.1828.225.746.1CL 30 – 163 Site 3 ( 25 yrs palm ) Typic Haplaquolls 3.38.330.60.832.252.245.6SIL 0 – 40 4.18.344.40.3819.726.753.6SCL 40 – 100 4.78.162.80.0042.953.83.3SIC100–117 Site 4 ( 30 yrs palm ) Typic Haplaquolls 1.68.439.40.6215.430.045.6SL 0 – 20 2.38.244.10.6519.027.553.5SL 20 – 80 3.17.560.00.3222.443.034.6L 80 – 116 2.57.850.70.2551.034.015.0C116+ Site 5 ( 22 yrs palm ) Typical Haplaquents 4.47.852.81.0019.430.550.1L 0 – 15 3.37.656.30.6821.431.547.1L 15 – 75 3.57.849.60.6533.429.037.6CL 75 – 145 5.17.846.50.3438.927.034.1CL 145– 170

27 Salinity and date palm production Y = 100- b × (EC e –a)................[4] Where: Y = relative yield b = the rate yield declines with increasing salinity. a = threshold salinity value for date palm ( 4 dS/m) ECe = electrical conductivity of root zone

28 Table 19. Soil salinity (EC e ) and irrigation water salinity (EC w ) date palm (Ayers and Westcot, 1985 ) Yield Potential water salinity (EC dSm -1 ) maximum EC e 50 % 75 % 90 % 100 % 3217.910.96.84 EC e ( dSm -1 ) --12.07.34.52.7 EC w ( dSm -1 )

29 Leaching requirement LR = EC w /(5 EC e –EC w )…………[5] Where LR = leaching requirement ECw = electrical conductivity of irrigation water (dS/m) ECe = electrical conductivity of the soil in root zone (dS/m)

30 Table 20. Leaching requirement as related to the electrical conductivities of irrigation and drainage water. EC e ( dSm -1 ) EC w ( dSm -1 ) 20161284 ----------------------------- % -------------------------------- 1.001.271.702.565.261.0 1.521.912.563.908.111.5 2.042.563.455.2611.112.0 2.563.224.346.6614.282.5 3.093.905.268.1117.643.0 4.165.267.1411.1125.004.0 5.266.669.0914.2833.335.0

31 Estimation Evapotranspiration Estimating Crop ET Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration (ET r ) Crop Coefficients Deficit Irrigation

32 Table 22. Date Palm means yield for 1991-1994 as affected by different levels of water and water use efficiency under various irrigation methods and irrigation levels (adapted from Al-Amoud et al., 1999 ) WUE (Kg/m 3 ) Water applied ( m 3 /Tree ) Yield ( Kg /Tree ) IrrigationlevelIrrigationMethod 1.14120133.7 50% E Bubbler 0.70220154.5 100% E 0.56325182.5 150% E 1.35120162.0 50% E Basin 0.81220178.0 100% E 0.51325165.5 150% E 1.70120203.7 50% E Trickle 0.87220191.7 100% E 0.58325188.3 150% E

33 Table 23. Consumption use of water in some regionof Saudi Arabia ( Al-Khatib et al., 2006 ). m 3 h -1 Regions Irrigation Systems dripbubblersurface 206022504634343Riyadh 206672509534451Makkah 259783154543305Madenah 211212564735204Qaseem 208652612034782Eastern 150611828925107Aseer 192902342432157Tabuk 211482568035254Hail 211212564734976Northern 173172102828868Najran 150611828925107ABaha 211212564735204Jouf

34 Table 24. Comparison of yield, water consumption and water use efficiency for 17 year old date palm tree Average200220012000Season 1247117003125377873 Total Yield - kg 119.6167163.1120.2575.5 Average Yield - kg 91.63333102.586.086.4 Average Water Consumption - m 3 /tree/year 0.821.59 1.43 0.87 Water Use Efficiency- Kg/rn 3

35 Table 25. Water Use Efficiency for Date Palm tree (WUE Kg m -3 ) in some region WUE Kg m -3 Regions Irrigation Systems dripbubblersurface 0.2940.2420.177 Riyadh 0.3400.2800.204 Makkah 0.2030.1680.122 Madenah 0.2000.1650.120 Qaseem 0.4900.3920.294 Eastern 0.6380.5250.383 Aseer 0.3720.3060.223 Tabuk 0.2800.2310.168 Hail 0.2860.2360.173 Northern 0.2840.2340.170 Najran 0.2750.2260.165 Baha 0.4210.3460.252 Jouf

36 Considerations and recommendations

37 Thank you


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