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IRRIGATION OF DATE PALM ASSOCIATED CROPS IN SAUDI ARABIA

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1 IRRIGATION OF DATE PALM ASSOCIATED CROPS IN SAUDI ARABIA
AND ASSOCIATED CROPS IN SAUDI ARABIA Hussein M. Al-Ghobari Abdulrasoul M. Alomran College of Food Sciences and Agric. King Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

2 List of Contents List of Figures List of Tables Introduction
Date palm production in Saudi Arabia Food Uses Other Uses Date palm varieties Location and climate Land and Water Resources Agricultural Practices for Date Palm Husbandry Propagation Methods Root System

3 Land and Soil preparation
Plantation of offshoots Soil salinity and date palm Date palm spacing Fertilization Requirement Pest and Diseases in Date Palm Financial and economic importance of date palm production in Saudi Arabia Financial and Economic Importance Dried dates production in Saudi Arabia 2000 Categories of Palms Saudi Arabia is the biggest producer 29 National Factories Encouraging investors

4 Irrigation of Date Palm
and Associated Crops History of date palm irrigation Current Irrigation Management and Practices Irrigation methods Irrigation management Irrigation Water Management Water resources Conventional Resources Non-conventional resources Irrigation water demand management Salinity of Irrigation water

5 Classification of irrigation water quality
Soil salinity Salinity and date palm production Leaching requirement Irrigation Scheduling Irrigation Scheduling of Date Palm Irrigation Scheduling Methods Estimation Evapotranspiration Estimating Crop ET Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration (ETr) Crop Coefficients Deficit Irrigation

6 Irrigation water use efficiency
Constrains Facing the Development of Date Palm in Saudi Arabia Irrigation frequency and its variability in time Critical stages of water stress in the soil and their influence on dates Institutional responsibilities Irrigation Institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Agriculture Subsidies Technical Support Operation and Maintenance Considerations and recommendations CONCLUSIONS References

7 Date palm production in Saudi Arabia
Table 1. Estimated Number of Date Palm Trees by Region for the Years 1999 to 2005. 2005 2004 2003 2002 1999 Region Riyadh Makkah Madina Qasseim Eastern Province Assir 870023 899863 895940 677803 627595 Tabuk Hail 2047 1826 1942 1891 1751 Northern Frontier 7360 8738 11172 8366 7746 Jizan 608488 443709 387136 472513 437512 Najiran 145177 124894 88952 111192 102956 Albaha 892174 862065 627229 580768 Jouf Total

8 Estimated area and production of dates crop by region
in Saudi Arabia (Ministry of Agriculture, 2006.) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005* Seasons AREA PROD. Region 33552 207706 33432 209938 33128 212398 37361 213065 38409 223290 Riyadh 9191 63305 9072 69734 8981 68109 9773 69002 10686 64680 Makkah 17181 90697 17536 90298 18199 98664 18819 100906 19384 100991 Madenah 33728 126451 34402 130041 34277 138470 35808 160844 34176 172863 Qaseem 12085 103470 11766 104269 11043 118667 11639 129711 11221 134735 Eastern 8061 80914 8016 82802 8392 80444 7154 72666 6569 50289 Aseer 4464 27300 4715 27816 4678 29691 4437 30078 3952 44582 Tabuk 12653 69049 12924 68232 13979 85159 14889 97284 17000 104001 Hail 17 61 8 66 12 84 14 69 101 Northern 318 147 130 205 298 166 221 186 243 Jazan 3078 13426 3045 13462 3438 14125 3390 17922 3146 20131 Najran 698 3512 680 3006 712 2729 963 3547 1253 5027 Baha 4073 31849 4065 29746 4378 35251 4389 45978 4750 49554 Jouf 139099 817887 139979 829540 141421 884088 148801 941293 150744 970488 Kingdom

9 Table 3. Means of Area and Production of Date Palm
Means for Season Regions Prod./Area Mean PROD. Mean AREA ton h-1 ton hectare Riyadh 66966 9540.6 Makkah Madenah Qaseem Eastern 73423 7638.4 Aseer 4449.2 Tabuk 84745 14289 Hail 76.2 12.6 Northern 207.8 238.6 Jazan 3219.4 Najran 3564.2 861.2 Baha 4331 Jouf Kingdom

10 Land and Water Resources
Date palm varieties: Location and climate Land and Water Resources

11 Agricultural Practices for Date Palm Husbandry Propagation Methods:
Land and Soil preparation: Plantation of offshoots Soil salinity and date palm Date palm spacing Fertilization Requirement Pest and Diseases in Date Palm:

12 Financial and Economic Importance
Dried dates production in Saudi Arabia

13 History of date palm irrigation
Irrigation of Date Palm and Associated Crops History of date palm irrigation

14

15 Figure 15. Unpaved canals used to carry irrigation water to the field.
Figure. 16. Cement canals used carry irrigation water to field.

16 Current Irrigation Management
and Practices

17 system using bubbler method.
Figure17. Irrigation of date palm tree by drip system using orifice emitter method Figure18. Irrigation of date palm tree by drip system using bubbler method.

18 Figure19. Irrigation of date palm tree using systems

19 Figure 20. Irrigation of date palm tree by
drip system using spray method

20 Irrigation Water Management
Irrigation management Irrigation Water Management Water resources

21 Domestic and industrial (per cent)
Table 9. Growth of Water Use in Saudi Arabia, 1980–2010 (millions of cubic meters) Total Agricultural (per cent) Domestic and industrial (per cent) 2,352 78.7 1,850 21.3 502 1980 27,239 93.94 25,589 6.06 1,650 1990 31,696 94.1 29,826 5.9 1,870 1992 18,469 88.83 16,406 11.17 2,063 1997 14,100 79.43 11,200 20.57 2,900 2000 18,300 80.33 14,700 19.67 3,600 2010 Sources: MOP 1990; Dabbagh and Abderrahman 1997 (agricultural and total use, 1990 and 1992).

22 Sources: MOP 1990 estimate; Dabbagh and Abderrahman 1997.
Table 10. Water supply in Saudi Arabia, 1990–1997 (millions of cubic meters) % a 1997 1992 1990 12 2,140 7 13 2,100 Surface water and shallow aquifers (renewable) 83 15,376 90 28,576 24,489 Groundwater (non-renewable) 4 795 2 3 540 Desalination 1 185 0.6 0.7 110 Treated wastewater effluents 18,496 31,696 27,239 Total Sources: MOP 1990 estimate; Dabbagh and Abderrahman 1997. aPercentages do not add to 100 due to rounding.

23 Figure 22. Classification of agriculture holdings per water source (Ministry of Agriculture,1999)

24 (Region of Saudi Arabia)
Salinity of Irrigation water Table13. Salient Features of Different Aquifers (Ministry of agriculture and water, 1985) Location (Region of Saudi Arabia) Discharge ( Ls-1 ) Water Depth ( m ) Aquifers Central - North 100 150 – 1500 Al-Saq Southern 40 – 80 150 – 900 Wajid 15 – 20 60 – 2500 Tabuk Central 60 – 120 1200 – 2000 Minjur Dhruma Northern 25 – 50 30 – 200 Biyadh Central - East 85 – 110 100 – 800 Wasia Eastern 50 – 100 160 – 200 Umm-ER-Radhuma 7 – 22 Dammam NA Neogene West – Riyadh 10 – 18 Jilh East – El-Qawayh 7 – 23 Khuff 30 – 32 Aruma Jubalia Western Basalt Western - Costal 50 Aluuvial NA, data not available.

25 Mean Composition ( mg L-1 )
Table 14. Mean Chemical Composition of Ground waters Mean Composition ( mg L-1 ) Aquifer Class Adj SAR adjRNa+ SAR Cl-/S042- Ca2+/Mg2+ O3- SO42- Cl- HCO3- Na+ Mg2+ Ca2+ TDS EC dSm-1 Sample No. C4 S2 13.86 7.18 6.86 2.51 2.84 -- 368 683 129 442 49 232 1950 2.82 51 Al-Saq C3 S2 6.54 3.77 3.10 1.24 2.75 294 269 188 149 28 128 1200 2.21 87 Wajid 8.09 4.28 4.13 0.67 1.56 603 305 171 196 40 104 1360 1.68 39 Tabuk 7.08 4.02 3.47 1.09 1.62 419 338 165 204 60 162 1390 54 Minjur 9.28 6.04 4.07 1.25 1.51 105 653 606 169 358 140 353 1850 2.74 38 Dhruma 8.79 5.68 3.23 0.69 2.42 15 1270 640 186 404 208 839 4770 7.44 163 Biyadh 31.83 13.95 12.53 0.49 3.15 31 858 313 189 1210 102 535 4860 8.24 347 Wasia 15.01 7.54 6.36 1.44 1.73 703 750 547 123 355 2950 3.86 469 Umm-ER-Radhuma 13.94 6.71 5.93 0.79 1.49 12 721 420 178 471 115 285 2660 3.97 441 Dammam 13.51 6.49 5.98 0.99 0.98 865 630 183 495 157 256 2690 3.45 538 Neogene 12.03 6.16 5.14 0.54 1.46 785 139 532 198 481 3790 5.07 61 Jilh* 13.22 6.55 5.60 0.83 1.21 1670 1030 150 589 227 457 3850 4.89 67 Khuff* 11.65 5.92 5.11 0.96 1.59 56 669 473 187 372 93 247 2120 3.16 Aruma* 9.27 4.77 4.03 2.25 1.29 207 674 1120 217 296 107 230 2470 3.50 37 Jubailia* 14.10 6.62 6.81 3.68 0.80 274 746 224 400 116 1830 2.13 45 Basalt* 13.74 6.80 6.19 1.26 449 275 206 437 100 210 1680 2.60 3576 Alluvial*

26 Table 17. Physical and chemical properties of some sites in Eastern Oasis of Al-Hassa region under date palm cultivation EC pH CaCO3 Organic Carbon Clay Silt sand Texture Depth (cm) dSm-1 Paste % Site 1 ( 22 yrs palm ) Typic Haplaquolls 2.4 8.2 38.3 0.68 15.2 27.7 57.1 SL 0 – 65 3.0 8.1 41.5 0.43 19.7 22.7 57.6 65 – 130 2.9 8.3 12.6 0.06 10.2 1.3 88.6 LS 130+ Site 2 ( 40 yrs palm + rice ) Aquic Torriorthents 4.0 8.0 54.6 0.31 19.2 36.7 44.1 L 0 -30 5.2 52.6 0.18 28.2 25.7 46.1 CL 30 – 163 Site 3 ( 25 yrs palm ) Typic Haplaquolls 3.3 30.6 0.83 2.2 52.2 45.6 SIL 0 – 40 4.1 44.4 0.38 26.7 53.6 SCL 40 – 100 4.7 62.8 0.00 42.9 53.8 SIC 100–117 Site 4 ( 30 yrs palm ) Typic Haplaquolls 1.6 8.4 39.4 0.62 15.4 30.0 0 – 20 2.3 0.65 19.0 27.5 53.5 20 – 80 3.1 7.5 60.0 0.32 22.4 43.0 34.6 80 – 116 2.5 7.8 50.7 0.25 51.0 34.0 15.0 C 116+ Site 5 ( 22 yrs palm ) Typical Haplaquents 4.4 52.8 1.00 19.4 30.5 50.1 0 – 15 7.6 56.3 21.4 31.5 47.1 15 – 75 3.5 49.6 33.4 29.0 37.6 75 – 145 5.1 46.5 0.34 38.9 27.0 34.1 145– 170

27 Salinity and date palm production
Y = b × (ECe –a) [4] Where: Y = relative yield b = the rate yield declines with increasing salinity. a = threshold salinity value for date palm ( 4 dS/m) ECe = electrical conductivity of root zone

28 Table 19. Soil salinity (ECe) and irrigation
water salinity (ECw) date palm (Ayers and Westcot, 1985 ) Yield Potential water salinity (EC dSm-1) maximum ECe 50% 75% 90% 100% 32 17.9 10.9 6.8 4 ECe ( dSm-1 ) -- 12.0 7.3 4.5 2.7 ECw ( dSm-1 )

29 LR = ECw /(5 ECe –ECw)…………[5]
Leaching requirement LR = ECw /(5 ECe –ECw)…………[5] Where LR = leaching requirement ECw = electrical conductivity of irrigation water (dS/m) ECe = electrical conductivity of the soil in root zone (dS/m)

30 Table 20. Leaching requirement as related to
the electrical conductivities of irrigation and drainage water. ECe ( dSm-1 ) ECw ( dSm-1 ) 20 16 12 8 4 % 1.00 1.27 1.70 2.56 5.26 1.0 1.52 1.91 3.90 8.11 1.5 2.04 3.45 11.11 2.0 3.22 4.34 6.66 14.28 2.5 3.09 17.64 3.0 4.16 7.14 25.00 4.0 9.09 33.33 5.0

31 Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration (ETr)
Estimation Evapotranspiration Estimating Crop ET Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration (ETr) Crop Coefficients Deficit Irrigation

32 Table 22. Date Palm means yield for 1991-1994 as affected by
different levels of water and water use efficiency under various irrigation methods and irrigation levels (adapted from Al-Amoud et al., 1999 ) WUE (Kg/m3) Water applied ( m3 /Tree ) Yield ( Kg /Tree ) Irrigation level Method 1.14 120 133.7 50% E Bubbler 0.70 220 154.5 100% E 0.56 325 182.5 150% E 1.35 162.0 Basin 0.81 178.0 0.51 165.5 1.70 203.7 Trickle 0.87 191.7 0.58 188.3

33 Table 23. Consumption use of water in some
regionof Saudi Arabia ( Al-Khatib et al., 2006 ). m3 h-1 Regions Irrigation Systems drip bubbler surface 20602 25046 34343 Riyadh 20667 25095 34451 Makkah 25978 31545 43305 Madenah 21121 25647 35204 Qaseem 20865 26120 34782 Eastern 15061 18289 25107 Aseer 19290 23424 32157 Tabuk 21148 25680 35254 Hail 34976 Northern 17317 21028 28868 Najran ABaha Jouf

34 Table 24. Comparison of yield, water consumption and
water use efficiency for 17 year old date palm tree Average 2002 2001 2000 Season 12471 17003 12537 7873 Total Yield - kg 163.1 120.25 75.5 Average Yield - kg 102.5 86.0 86.4 Average Water Consumption - m3/tree/year 0.82 1.59 1 .43 0.87 Water Use Efficiency- Kg/rn3

35 Table 25. Water Use Efficiency for
Date Palm tree (WUE Kg m-3) in some region WUE Kg m-3 Regions Irrigation Systems drip bubbler surface 0.294 0.242 0.177 Riyadh 0.340 0.280 0.204 Makkah 0.203 0.168 0.122 Madenah 0.200 0.165 0.120 Qaseem 0.490 0.392 Eastern 0.638 0.525 0.383 Aseer 0.372 0.306 0.223 Tabuk 0.231 Hail 0.286 0.236 0.173 Northern 0.284 0.234 0.170 Najran 0.275 0.226 Baha 0.421 0.346 0.252 Jouf

36 Considerations and recommendations

37 Thank you


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