Presentation on theme: "IRRIGATION OF DATE PALM AND ASSOCIATED CROPS IN SAUDI ARABIA Hussein M. Al-Ghobari Abdulrasoul M. Alomran College of Food Sciences and Agric. King Saud."— Presentation transcript:
IRRIGATION OF DATE PALM AND ASSOCIATED CROPS IN SAUDI ARABIA Hussein M. Al-Ghobari Abdulrasoul M. Alomran College of Food Sciences and Agric. King Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
List of Contents List of Figures List of Tables Introduction Date palm production in Saudi Arabia Food Uses Other Uses Date palm varieties Location and climate Land and Water Resources Agricultural Practices for Date Palm Husbandry Propagation Methods Root System
Land and Soil preparation Plantation of offshoots Soil salinity and date palm Date palm spacing Fertilization Requirement Pest and Diseases in Date Palm Financial and economic importance of date palm production in Saudi Arabia Financial and Economic Importance Dried dates production in Saudi Arabia 2000 Categories of Palms Saudi Arabia is the biggest producer 29 National Factories Encouraging investors
Irrigation of Date Palm and Associated Crops History of date palm irrigation Current Irrigation Management and Practices Irrigation methods Irrigation management Irrigation Water Management Water resources Conventional Resources Non-conventional resources Irrigation water demand management Salinity of Irrigation water
Classification of irrigation water quality Soil salinity Salinity and date palm production Leaching requirement Irrigation Scheduling Irrigation Scheduling of Date Palm Irrigation Scheduling Methods Estimation Evapotranspiration Estimating Crop ET Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration (ETr) Crop Coefficients Deficit Irrigation
Irrigation water use efficiency Constrains Facing the Development of Date Palm in Saudi Arabia Irrigation frequency and its variability in time Critical stages of water stress in the soil and their influence on dates Institutional responsibilities Irrigation Institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Agriculture Subsidies Technical Support Operation and Maintenance Considerations and recommendations CONCLUSIONS References
Date palm production in Saudi Arabia Table 1. Estimated Number of Date Palm Trees by Region for the Years 1999 to Region Riyadh Makkah Madina Qasseim Eastern Province Assir Tabuk Hail Northern Frontier Jizan Najiran Albaha Jouf Total
Estimated area and production of dates crop by region in Saudi Arabia (Ministry of Agriculture, 2006.) * Seasons AREAPROD.AREAPROD.AREAPROD.AREAPROD.AREAPROD.Region Riyadh Makkah Madenah Qaseem Eastern Aseer Tabuk Hail Northern Jazan Najran Baha Jouf Kingdom
Table 3. Means of Area and Production of Date Palm Means for Season Regions Prod./Area Mean PROD. Mean AREA ton h -1 tonhectare Riyadh Makkah Madenah Qaseem Eastern Aseer Tabuk Hail Northern Jazan Najran Baha Jouf Kingdom
Date palm varieties: Location and climate Land and Water Resources
Agricultural Practices for Date Palm Husbandry Propagation Methods: Land and Soil preparation: Plantation of offshoots Soil salinity and date palm Date palm spacing Fertilization Requirement Pest and Diseases in Date Palm:
Financial and Economic Importance Dried dates production in Saudi Arabia
Irrigation of Date Palm and Associated Crops History of date palm irrigation
Figure 15. Unpaved canals used to carry irrigation water to the field. Figure. 16. Cement canals used carry irrigation water to field.
Current Irrigation Management and Practices
Figure17. Irrigation of date palm tree by drip system using orifice emitter method Figure18. Irrigation of date palm tree by drip system using bubbler method.
Figure19. Irrigation of date palm tree using systems
Figure 20. Irrigation of date palm tree by drip system using spray method
Irrigation management Irrigation Water Management Water resources
Table 9. Growth of Water Use in Saudi Arabia, 1980– 2010 (millions of cubic meters) TotalAgricultural (per cent) (per cent) Domestic and industrial (per cent) 2, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , Sources: MOP 1990; Dabbagh and Abderrahman 1997 (agricultural and total use, 1990 and 1992).
Table 10. Water supply in Saudi Arabia, 1990–1997 (millions of cubic meters) % a ,14072, ,100 2,100 Surface water and shallow aquifers (renewable) 8315, , ,489 Groundwater (non- renewable) Desalination Treated wastewater effluents 18,496 31,696 27,239Total Sources: MOP 1990 estimate; Dabbagh and Abderrahman a Percentages do not add to 100 due to rounding.
Figure 22. Classification of agriculture holdings per water source (Ministry of Agriculture,1999)
Salinity of Irrigation water Table13. Salient Features of Different Aquifers (Ministry of agriculture and water, 1985) Location (Region of Saudi Arabia) Discharge ( Ls -1 ) Water Depth ( m ) Aquifers Central - North – 1500 Al-Saq Southern 40 – – 900 Wajid Central - North 15 – – 2500 Tabuk Central 60 – – 2000 Minjur Central 60 – Dhruma Northern 25 – – 200 Biyadh Central - East 85 – – 800 Wasia Eastern 50 – – 200 Umm-ER- Radhuma Eastern 7 – – 100 Dammam Eastern NANeogene West – Riyadh 10 – 18 NAJilh East – El-Qawayh 7 – 23 NAKhuff Central - East 30 – 32 NAAruma CentralNANAJubalia WesternNANABasalt Western - Costal 50NAAluuvial NA, data not available.
Table 14. Mean Chemical Composition of Ground waters Mean Composition ( mg L -1 ) Aquifer Clas s Adj SAR adjR Na + SAR Cl - /S Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ O3-O3-O3-O3- SO Cl - HCO 3 - Na + Mg 2 + Ca 2 + TDSEC dSm -1 Sam ple No. C4 S Al-Saq C3 S Wajid C3 S Tabuk C4 S Minjur C4 S Dhruma C4 S Biyadh C4 S Wasia C4 S Umm- ER- Radhum a C4 S Damma m C4 S Neogene C4 S Jilh* C4 S Khuff* C4 S Aruma* C4 S Jubailia* C3 S Basalt* C4 S Alluvial*
Table 17. Physical and chemical properties of some sites in Eastern Oasis of Al-Hassa region under date palm cultivation ECpH CaCO 3 Organic Carbon ClaySiltsand TextureDepth(cm) dSm -1 Paste % Site 1 ( 22 yrs palm ) Typic Haplaquolls SL 0 – SL 65 – LS130+ Site 2 ( 40 yrs palm + rice ) Aquic Torriorthents L CL 30 – 163 Site 3 ( 25 yrs palm ) Typic Haplaquolls SIL 0 – SCL 40 – SIC100–117 Site 4 ( 30 yrs palm ) Typic Haplaquolls SL 0 – SL 20 – L 80 – C116+ Site 5 ( 22 yrs palm ) Typical Haplaquents L 0 – L 15 – CL 75 – CL 145– 170
Salinity and date palm production Y = 100- b × (EC e –a)  Where: Y = relative yield b = the rate yield declines with increasing salinity. a = threshold salinity value for date palm ( 4 dS/m) ECe = electrical conductivity of root zone
Table 19. Soil salinity (EC e ) and irrigation water salinity (EC w ) date palm (Ayers and Westcot, 1985 ) Yield Potential water salinity (EC dSm -1 ) maximum EC e 50 % 75 % 90 % 100 % EC e ( dSm -1 ) EC w ( dSm -1 )
Leaching requirement LR = EC w /(5 EC e –EC w )………… Where LR = leaching requirement ECw = electrical conductivity of irrigation water (dS/m) ECe = electrical conductivity of the soil in root zone (dS/m)
Table 20. Leaching requirement as related to the electrical conductivities of irrigation and drainage water. EC e ( dSm -1 ) EC w ( dSm -1 ) %
Estimation Evapotranspiration Estimating Crop ET Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration (ET r ) Crop Coefficients Deficit Irrigation
Table 22. Date Palm means yield for as affected by different levels of water and water use efficiency under various irrigation methods and irrigation levels (adapted from Al-Amoud et al., 1999 ) WUE (Kg/m 3 ) Water applied ( m 3 /Tree ) Yield ( Kg /Tree ) IrrigationlevelIrrigationMethod % E Bubbler % E % E % E Basin % E % E % E Trickle % E % E
Table 23. Consumption use of water in some regionof Saudi Arabia ( Al-Khatib et al., 2006 ). m 3 h -1 Regions Irrigation Systems dripbubblersurface Riyadh Makkah Madenah Qaseem Eastern Aseer Tabuk Hail Northern Najran ABaha Jouf
Table 24. Comparison of yield, water consumption and water use efficiency for 17 year old date palm tree Average Season Total Yield - kg Average Yield - kg Average Water Consumption - m 3 /tree/year Water Use Efficiency- Kg/rn 3
Table 25. Water Use Efficiency for Date Palm tree (WUE Kg m -3 ) in some region WUE Kg m -3 Regions Irrigation Systems dripbubblersurface Riyadh Makkah Madenah Qaseem Eastern Aseer Tabuk Hail Northern Najran Baha Jouf