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Principal(les) for Data Collection: Important Ingredients for Successful and Targeted Interventions Richard P. West, Ph.D. Terry Humphreys, M.S. Tim G.

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Presentation on theme: "Principal(les) for Data Collection: Important Ingredients for Successful and Targeted Interventions Richard P. West, Ph.D. Terry Humphreys, M.S. Tim G."— Presentation transcript:

1 Principal(les) for Data Collection: Important Ingredients for Successful and Targeted Interventions Richard P. West, Ph.D. Terry Humphreys, M.S. Tim G. Smith, M.S. Matthew J. Taylor Ph.D. Utah State University and Cache County School District http://www.csf.usu.edu

2 If Schools Are To Achieve All They Can, They Will Need… Better information about what works (Best Practices) Tools for monitoring progress Tailored assistance in developing and implementing appropriate policy More skillful communication and more public involvement in reform Education Commission of the States, 1998

3 Better schools result from better decisions, and better decisions result from better data Sustained improvement in academic achievement requires changes in the school environment An ethic of collegiality and cooperation is necessary to bring about meaningful school reform PRINCIPLES

4 Indicators of School Quality Monitoring the School Environment

5 External Variables Internal Variables

6 Web of Causation for Academic Achievement Instruction Academic Achievement

7 Web of Causation for Social Competence Punishment Social Competence

8 Natural selection of metabolic adaptation to starvation Social pressures Industrial society Hereditary factors Dietary excesses in saturated fat, cholesterol, calories, salt Obesity Personality & emotional stress Cigarette smoking Lack of exercise Coronary artery distribution Diabetes or carbohydrate intolerance Hyperlipidemia Hypertension Increased catecholamines Thrombotic tendency Significant coronary atherosclerosis Myocardial susceptibility Deficiency in collateral circulation Coronary occlusion Myocardial infarction The authors note that Despite the apparent complexity of this diagram, it is undoubtedly an oversimplification and will certainly be modified by further study. (p. 5). Web of Causation for Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attacks) Taken from Friedman, G. D. (1994). Primer of Epidemiology (5 th Ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, p.4.

9 The Indicators of School Quality Parent Support Teacher Excellence Instructional Quality Administration Student Commitment Safety Resources

10 Areas of Risk 1.Home Language Is English the primary language spoken at home? 2.Mobility Have you moved more than once in the past three years? 3.Peer Associations Do you generally approve of your childs closest friends? 4.Family Bonding Do your neighbors generally monitor their childrens activities? 5.Community Affiliation Do you regularly attend community, social, or religious meetings? 6.Academic Risk Do you have a high school diploma/GED? 7.Economic Risk Do you have Internet access at home?

11 ISQ and Academic Achievement The variables measured by ISQ account for more than 80% of the variance of academic achievement scores Even when risk is removed from the equation, the correlations between ISQ variables and achievement are statistically significant

12 Hierarchy of Risk Economic Status Community Affiliation Family Bonding Mobility Academic Status Home Language Peer Acceptance

13 At-Risk Schools

14 A Tale of Two Schools "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times.

15 Universal All Students Targeted At-Risk Students Clear Communication of Behavioral Expectations Bobcat Pride (Rules, Values, Common Language) Administrative Intervention (Instructions Individual Negotiations Contracts) Relationships and Bonding System-wide Advisement Extra-Curricular Programs Mentoring Relationship-building Teaching Emphasis Academic Skills Social Skills Self-management Skills Teaching Social Skills Behavior Modeling (Expectations, Modeling, Practice, Fluency, Evaluation) Intensive Teaching (Planned And Opportunistic Teaching) Recognition for Appropriate Behavior Bobcat 200 (Praise Notes/Boards Recognition Programs Good Behavior Game) Increase) Instructive Praise Bobcat Tracks

16 Office Referrals

17 Office Referrals OCTOBER

18 Total Level 1 Violations by Groups At-Risk students, in this case, are identified as having 5 or more violations MARCH 2004 6% 59% 25% 41%

19 Level 1 Violations by At-Risk Groups MARCH 2004

20 Violations by Location

21 Universal All Students Targeted At-Risk Students Clear Communication of Behavioral Expectations Bobcat Pride (Rules, Values, Common Language) Administrative Intervention (Instructions Individual Negotiations Contracts) Relationships and Bonding System-wide Advisement Extra-Curricular Programs Mentoring Relationship-building Teaching Emphasis Academic Skills Social Skills Self-management Skills Teaching Social Skills Behavior Modeling (Expectations, Modeling, Practice, Fluency, Evaluation) Intensive Teaching (Planned And Opportunistic Teaching) Recognition for Appropriate Behavior Bobcat 200 (Praise Notes/Boards Recognition Programs Good Behavior Game) Increase) Instructive Praise Bobcat Tracks

22 The Future of ISQ Indicators of PBS Domain and PBS Checklists

23 Elementary Students Do your teachers always give clear instructions? Are you often confused about how to behave at school? Do you like to read? Do your teachers tell you when you do well?

24 Secondary Students Do all of your teachers generally give clear instructions? Is there an adult at this school who you can approach for help? Are you frequently confused about what is expected of you at school? Would you know where to get help if you fell behind in your schoolwork? Have you been recognized individually in the last school week for behaving well?

25 Staff Do you post clearly stated expectations for behavior in your classroom? Do teachers regularly encourage students to come to them for extra help? Is there a coordinated effort by all school staff to teach appropriate social skills? Do all of your students know where to get help to catch up academically? Are you encouraged by the administration to recognize positive student behaviors?

26 Checklist of Contextual Factors 1.A well-written set of behavioral standards and expectations exists at this school 2.The set of expectations is short (generally from 5 to 7 items) 3.Students were involved in the development, refinement, and communication of the standards of behavior 4.The behavioral expectations are statements of how to behave well, rather than what not to do 5.Behavioral expectations are posted prominently throughout the school 6.Behavioral expectations are emphasized in each classroom (e.g. explicitly taught, reminded, and encouraged) 7.Students are able to remember and repeat statements of behavioral expectations Clear Communication of Expectations for Performance Adapted from G. Roy Mayer (2001) California State University,Los Angeles

27 Checklist of Contextual Factors 8.Strong administrative support for staff exists (e.g. good teaching is recognized, faculty requests are acted upon promptly) 9.Strong staff support for one another exists (e.g. staff confer with one another regarding instruction and discipline) 10.Staff greet and help students feel welcome in the classroom 11.Staff interact with and show interest in students in various settings 12.Staff have many more positive than negative interactions with students 13.Students generally comply willingly with staff requests and instructions 14.Students tend to hang around staff, engaging in conversations, etc. 15.Staff are really well acquainted with each and every student, and are familiar with students personal characteristics, attributes, and challenges Relationships and Bonding Adapted from G. Roy Mayer (2001) California State University,Los Angeles

28 Checklist of Contextual Factors 16.The school assumes responsibility for learning of academic skills 17.Curriculum in all areas is organized to emphasize active rather than passive responding, with many tailored opportunities for all students to respond 18.Academic assignments are adjusted to students functional levels 19.Sufficient additional academic support is provided to struggling students 20.The school assumes responsibility for learning of social skills 21.Social skills are identified and taught effectively emphasizing fluency and generalized performance in natural settings 22.Failure to meet high expectations of performance is followed by individual intensive teaching rather than punishment 23.Students receive explicit instruction and support in self- management Skill-Building Emphasis: Academic, Social, and Self-Management Skills Adapted from G. Roy Mayer (2001) California State University,Los Angeles

29 Checklist of Contextual Factors 24.Recognition is provided by the administration to students who meet the behavioral expectations 25.Recognition is provided by classroom teachers to students who meet the behavioral expectations 26.All students receive frequent and appropriate recognition for their accomplishments and efforts to meet high standards of good behavior 27.At-Risk students receive more frequent and personalized (tailored) recognition for their efforts to meet high standards and expectations (in both academic and deportment) 28.Evidences exist in this school of efforts to pay more attention to good behavior and success than to problem behavior and mistakes Recognition of Appropriate Behavior Adapted from G. Roy Mayer (2001), California State University,Los Angeles

30 CONTEXTUAL FACTORS It appears that changing these identified contextual factors not only can help prevent antisocial behavior, but also can help to create an environment more conducive to learning G. Roy Mayer (2001) California State University,Los Angeles

31 Nine Contextual Factors that Contribute to Punitive School Environments and Promote Antisocial Behavior Low student involvement in school activities Unclear rules for student deportment Weak or inconsistent administrative support Student academic failure Student deficiency in social & personal management skills Problems discriminating prosocial & antisocial behavior Consequences delivered inconsistently Inadvertent reinforcement of antisocial behavior Over reliance on punitive methods of control (Mayer, 1995; Similar to home-based contextual factors noted by Loeber, Stouthammer-Loeber & Green, 1987 and Reid & Patterson, 1991)


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