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Aspects on language and learning development from a first language perspective Prof. Jarmo Lainio Finskt språk- och kulturcentrum, Akademin för utbildning,

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Presentation on theme: "Aspects on language and learning development from a first language perspective Prof. Jarmo Lainio Finskt språk- och kulturcentrum, Akademin för utbildning,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Aspects on language and learning development from a first language perspective Prof. Jarmo Lainio Finskt språk- och kulturcentrum, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation Mälardalens högskola & Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska Stockholms universitet

2 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH Languages of Europe Each dot represents the primary location of a living language listed in the Ethnologue. See the Ethnologue listing of the languages of Europe. Ethnologuelanguages of Europe

3 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH FolkungatidenUnionstiden Vasatiden Stormaktstiden Frihetstiden Gustavianska tiden Reasons for migra- tion

4 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH Positive international developments 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, Mälardalen University International support UNESCO/UNICEF – Bilingual education since 1950´s – The Rights of the Child Universal declaration of cultural diversity (sustainability) Universal declaration of linguistic rights Research results European development Convention on Fundamental Rights Council of Europe – Framework Convention for the Protection and Promotion of National Minorities – Charter on Regional or Minority Languages European Union – Strategy on multilingual development/linguistic diversity (2004-2006, 2007) – White paper 1995: 3LLL – ??Green paper COM(2008) 423

5 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH Global targets – development or retardation? Quotation 1 ”It is axiomatic that the best medium for teaching a child is his mother tongue. Psychologically, it is the system of meaningful signs that in his mind works automatically for expression amd understanding. Sociologically, it is a means of identification among the members of the community to which he belongs. Educationally, he learns more quickly through it than through an unfamiliar linguistic medium.” Quotation 2 ”If the medium of instruction is not the language spoken at home, particularly when parents are illiterate, then learning problems accumulate, and chances of dropping out increase. On the other hand, there is ample research showing that students are quicker to learn to read and write and acquire other skills when first taught in their mother tongue. They also learn a second language more quickly than those initially taught to read in an unfamiliar language.”

6 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH What have we learned…? Citat 1 UNESCO report 1953, p. 11: The Use of Vernacular Languages in Education Citat 2 UNICEF, 1999, p 41: The State of the World’s Children

7 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH Three basic principles against the ideas of simplistic assimilation/”integration” ”Save the child” (cf. Lenore Arnberg, 1988) – No difference in principle (though by content) between different groups, for all ”Save the language” – Historically based differences in policies (cf. Janulf 1998; instruction of vs. in the language); for established minorities + in Europe: Save European cultural heritage and minority identity (to be used as a good example?)

8 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH (Im)migrants or minorities? Or all Swedes? Maybe to many ”or’s” pro overlap? Traditional assimilation (or segregation) of national minorities until the end of the 1960’s Immigration policy useful also for minorities, from about 1965; 1975- (Invandrarutredningen, home language); (?1983 SKU) ”Fritt fall” for L1s (then home language) 1991- ? EU 1995- + New minority policy from the mid- and late 1990’s, from 2000- Council of Europe New language policy: save domains of Swedish, 2002- Sweden: national trends

9 Ny assimilationspolitik? ”Frånsett den första tiden i landet ska det inte finna någon särpolitik för invandrare.” (No specific policy of integration for immigrants beyond the introductory three years) ”Vidare ska den som har ett annat modersmål än de nu nämnda ges möjlighet att utveckla och använda sitt modersmål.” (Inte lära sig) Värna språken SOU 2008:26 (Further, those who have a different mother tongue than those mentioned above are given the possibility to develop and use their mother tongue) (Not to learn it) 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH

10 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH Demography and characteristics  Ca 250 000 – 675 000 Sweden Finnish background, plus  Jews,  Roma,  Sami, and  Tornedalians Total max. sum = 825 000  About 1,2 Million with Swedish as a second language  From close neighbourhoud migration to distant, global migration  No clear immigration of labour force for more than 20 years  More than 200 migrant groups?  Lack of statistics

11 Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH Table 8 B: Pupils receiving MTI and second language instruction (SVA) academic year 2007/08 (National Board of Edu., SOS; modified, JL) Entitled Proport. Amount Proport. Partic. to MTI partic. partic. MTI partic. SVA Total 155 210 16,6 83 482 53,8 66 8861 1) Arabic 27 940 3,0 18 451 66,0 16 143 2) Bosnian/Croatian/Serb. 14 531 1,6 7 308 50,3 5 356 3) Spanish 9 801 1,0 5 000 51,0 3 541 Finnish 8 229 0,9 3 033 36,9 1 421 5) English 8 059 0,9 3 860 47,9 1 685 6) Albanian 7 595 0,8 4 965 65,4 3 943 7) Persian/Farsi 6 574 0,7 4 008 61,0 2 399 8) Somalian 6 053 0,6 4 393 72,6 3 993 9) Turkish 5 461 0,6 3 237 59,3 3 152 10)Kurdish/North Kurdish 5 395 0,6 3 054 56,6 3 104 Other lang:s (130) 54 898 5,9 25 998 47,4 21 839 Unspecified lang:s 674 175 26,0 310

12 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH Semilingualism declared alive again Dagens Samhälle, 051124, om Malmö, om tvåspråkiga barns förskoleverksamhet: …Nästan en fjärdedel av eleverna i Malmö går ut nian utan godkänt i alla kärnämnen. En anledning är att så många ungdomar är halvspråkiga – talar två språk men är inte bra på något av dem. … Det här är mumbo jumbo. Att inte hårdsatsa på svenska bland så små barn, när de är som mest receptiva, är ett svek mot dem, säger kommunalrådet Thorbjörn Lindhqvist (m). … Anna-Lena Immo

13 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH Malmö på 2000-talet Sydsvenskan, 041209: Rubrik: ”Halvspråkiga barn skolornas stora problem”. Malmö. Det är de halvspråkiga barnen som varken behärskar sitt modersmål eller svenskan som är Malmöskolornas stora problem. Barn som kommer från andra länder med ett utvecklat modersmål är ett betydligt mindre problem. …

14 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH Value arguments – against L1s in school ”In Sweden we speak Swedish”, ’i Sverige talar vi svenska’ (INTE vetenskapligt argument) (normative value judgement) ”Maassa maan tavalla”, ’ta seden dit du kommer’, ’when in Rome, do like the Romans’ (normative value judgement)

15 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH Language learning and acquisition 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, Mälardalen University How are languages acquired and learned by young children and adolescents? By imitation only? At least four factors are needed to explain how it takes place: – Biological predisposition – Interaction – Imitation – Cognitive development – (Cultural impact) Consequences for schooling and literacy?

16 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH Language Cognitive development Monolinguals Relation between language and cognition 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, Mälardalen University

17 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH Language - Cognitive develop- ment Bi- and multi- linguals when language shift takes place

18 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH Language Cognitive development Bi-/multilinguals when bilingual development takes place Relation language and cognition (Jim Cummins; Ellen Bialystok)

19 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH What has a child learned till the age of 6-7 years? Basic vocabulary (8,000 – 12,000 words) Most phonetic features, prosodic features Basic grammar (morphology and syntax) Some stylistic features Some domains of language use Pragmatic and sociolinguistic basics Age level cognitive development What happens if you have to start school in another language?

20 What is the role of the school? Secondary socialisation Support L1 and L2 and C1 and C2 = the pupil Language development beyond the family’s capacity Development of higher levels of language skills, orally and in writing/reading Follow up development of language and cognition 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH

21 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH To catch up when no bilingual education from beginning 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, Mälardalen University Language development Cognitive development Subject matter, i.e. academic content = Grade and age level acquisition/learning and development Dual or two-way bilingual education Wayne Thomas & Virginia Collier (1997, 2002)

22 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH Holistic view? – Neither locally nor nationally from the point of view of society – Who is responsible and in charge of the minority/migrant views? – Bi-/multilingualism? ”Acquisition planning” – No idea implemented for the whole period of schooling – No continuity – No teacher education – No guaranteed higher education? – No group-internal plans First languages in school – no policy exists

23 Paradoxes from Sweden? Green paper COM(2008) 423 Final: ”Migration and mobility: challenges and opportunities for EU education systems” To replace Directive 77/486/CEE, which includes support for mother tongues (for EU member state citizens, in cooperation with the state of origin of migrant) Supported by for example the Esser report (Cf.). 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH

24 Paradoxes from Germany Hartmut Esser (2006) – report and other research (against?) bilingualism (AKI = Arbeitsstelle Interkulturelle Konflikte und gesellschaftliche Integration, Berlin): Migration, Sprache und Integration (2006) No effects of bilingualism on labour market merits, + for nishes and English There is no statistical evidence for positive or negative effects of L1 on educational achievement, except in cases where bilgingualism is achieved, which correlates positively with educational results 2014-08-21 Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH

25 Esser (2) The factors that seem to correlate positively with bilingualism and thus educational progression – Age of migration (= high level of L1) – Educational level of parents – Ethnic context – Concentration of children with migrant background to same schools and classes 2014-08-21

26 Comments There is no clue to the understanding of the writer of language-connected issues in the report (Critical age-threshold, Interdependence Hypothesis are discussed and part of the analysis) The fact that there are no positive or negative statistical effects of L1 + L2 learning, but one learns two languages, is not discussed Research results are highly contextually interpreted – Germany 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH

27 NESSE reports Friedrich Heckmann (2008) Education and Integration of Migrants (NESSE Analytical Report 1 for EU Commission DG Education and Culture). (University of Bamberg) 16 recommendations (NB: Most of which have been described as typical for immersion programmes and well functioning schools in general) 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH

28 Rec’s abbreviated from Heckmann’s report on ”integration” 1) Effective pre-school and day-care system needed 2) Later selection of specialisation needed 3) Integrate elements and symbols of the culture or the immigrant country; consultations 4) Improve the general quality of school 5) Desegregate schools 6) Special attention for special education for migrant children 7) Teacher training should be adapted to migrant children; assistants, howe work centres 8) Additional funding, as investment, not extra costs 4)Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH

29 …from Heckmann’s report (2) 9) Teachers should have high expectations 10) More migrant background children into teacher education 11) Liaison officers of schools (same background as parents) involve parents 12) Ethnic mentoring by outsiders inschool (parents, assoc.) 13) Involve families in early childhood language learning programmes 14) Authorities should set up goals and monitor them (rates of school leaving cert’s, migrant background teachers etc.) 16) Develop programmes for highly talented migrant pupils 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH

30 Recommendation 15, Heckmann 15) ”Migrant children should come to a full demand of the lingua franca of the immigration country as early as possible. Language training should be a central part of pre-school education. Priority should be given to the common language of the immigration country, since full command of the first language does not seem to be a necessary condition for learning the lingua franca of the immigration country. The lingua franca should be the language of instruction from the beginning of schooling. Since multlingualism is of high value the first language should be further developed in general language learning in school. ” 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH

31 Some comments on Rec 15 The bulk of the report does not deal with the issue of language and language policy, but conclusions do Again, does the writer know anything about how languages are learned? No one model fits all A ”worst case scenario” (in addition to when no L1 instruction is given) = give instruction about the language At least some subjects taught in both languages (O´Riágain, P. & Lüdi, G. 2003: Bilingual education, Council of Europe) 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH

32 Research on language and school Joana Duarte (2009; incl. in EUCIM-TE project) dual bilingual education, Portuguese and German in Hamburg Summary of results (to be continued…) 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH

33 On the other hand…? Can we evaluate the results of any educational model today, as safely as we want? 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH

34 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH Educational aspects: What does ”teaching” and conditions of learning look like today? Is the desk left? Teacher left? Child left? Children collectively, individually or in interaction? Classroom left? Other people involved? Role of all teachers evaluated? Evaluations increasingly difficult to generalize

35 Final comments We need to create space for good examples of functioning multilingualism and role models We need to (re-)consider the role of higher level of language development and writing/literacy for multilingual development We need to instruct our politicians on various basic aspects on language learning and bi-/multilingual language learning We need to raise more interest among all teachers for the relation between learning and language skills, and know more about what is taking place in the field today 2014-08-21Jarmo Lainio, FinSKC, MDH

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