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"Como manipular cientificamente as votações" Mealhada Dezembro de 2002 Jaime Carvalho e Silva.

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Presentation on theme: ""Como manipular cientificamente as votações" Mealhada Dezembro de 2002 Jaime Carvalho e Silva."— Presentation transcript:

1 "Como manipular cientificamente as votações" Mealhada Dezembro de 2002 Jaime Carvalho e Silva

2 Lancelot Hogben “Matemática para todos”, 1937 “Sem o conhecimento da matemática e da gramática dos números, não poderemos preparar a sociedade racional na qual haverá para todos menos pobreza e mais tempos livres.”

3 Lewis Carrol (1876) 4 (elections) ``more as a game of skill than a real test of the wishes of the electors.'' 4 ``as my own opinion is that it is better for elections to be decided according to the wish of the majority than of those who happen to have most skill in the game, I think it desirable that all should know the rule by which this game may be won.''

4 Heresthetic: the manipulation of the structures within which decisions are made, both the objective structure and the structure as it appears to participants. It is a study of the strategy of decision. To engage in heresthetic maneuver in a situation of political decision-making is to set up the situation in such a way that other people will want to join your side -- or will feel forced by circumstances to join your side -- even without any persuasion at all. Heresthetic is about structuring the world so you can win. Heresthetic (William H.Riker)

5 1. Voting information: Strategic voting (sophisticated voting); 2. Order of voting: Agenda setting; 3. The set of available alternatives: killer amendment; 4. Repetitions: Logrolling (vote trading); 5. Partition of voters: Gerrymandering; 6. Voting rule: The choice of a voting rule or electoral law.

6 1. Voting information: Strategic voting (sophisticated voting); Votante 1: x-y-z Votante 2: y-z-x Votante 3: z-x-y

7 2. Order of voting: Agenda setting; Votante 1: x-y-z Votante 2: y-z-x Votante 3: z-x-y

8 Adenda fantasma

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10 Logrolling (vote trading) Members of a committee may have a strong interest in one issue and may be almost indifferent about other issues. This makes possible logrolling or trading votes. 4. Repetitions: Logrolling (vote trading);

11 The phrase is likely derived from the old custom of neighbors assisting each other with the moving of logs. If two neighbors had cut a lot of timber which needed to be moved, it made more sense for them to work together to roll the logs -- if you'll help me roll my logs, I'll help you roll yours.

12 Circuit Judge Nikki Ann Clark [declared] the entire 1999 "tort reform" law [] unconstitutional. [] Clark [] applied [] Article III, Section 6 of the Florida Constitution, which provides that "(e)very law shall embrace but one subject and matter properly connected therewith, which subject shall be briefly expressed in the title.... " Under the catch-all label of "relating to civil actions," the Legislature had grab-bagged more than 20 provisions as diverse as note-taking powers for jurors, severe limits on punitive damages, and the infamous Boeing Amendment, to which we shall return shortly. The bill comprised 53 pages, 5 1/2 of which were title. Clark wasn't fooled. She called it "a classic case of logrolling, which is precisely the kind of enactment to be prevented by the single-subject rule." © St. Petersburg Times, published February 18, 2001

13 5. Partition of voters: Gerrymandering; Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts (1812)

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