2Contents Introduction Development National Standards 35 Web Site Reviews: Internet ResourcesInteractive LearningVirtual Learning CommunitiesDesign Your Own SiteWorld MusicTools and ResourcesSheet MusicResource PortalsReferences
4IntroductionGreek roots of the word technology refer to the study of art, craft, or technique (Webster 2002).How appropriate it is to use internet technology to advance music education!The following presentation reviews past and current use of music technology.Reviews of web sites focus upon application and interactivity of the content.
6DevelopmentA quick overview of the use of technology for instructional purposes helps ground our understanding of classroom uses, past, present, and future!Note the progression from programmed instruction to interactive instruction and independent learning.
71950: Earliest UsesComputers were not typically intended for educational use.Purposes included calculating missile trajectories.However, the technology industry developed programs to train its own personnel.Computing field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) research develops under Alan Turing and Claude Shannon.(Berz, 1995)
8: Mainframe PeriodResearchers study the possibilities of computer-assisted instruction (CAI).Uses are primarily restricted to programmed instruction delivered by computer.1970: SCHOLAR, the first intelligent tutoring system is introduced.(Berz, 1995)
91978-1989: Microcomputer Period 1978: Apple II released1981: IBM-PC released1984: Macintosh releasedThe development of personal computers allows the proliferation of computer technology in the home and classroom.(Berz, 1995)
101989-1993: Emerging Technologies Hypermedia, Artificial Intelligence, and Virtual Reality become more instructionally flexible.Hypermedia is the use of “links” to connect information.Today, it is commonly used on the Web to view more detailed text, images, audio, video, or to go to a new web site.Virtual Reality, coined in 1989, refers to computer-based experiences conveyed electronically such that senses are engaged primarily in the electronic presentation rather than the immediate environment.(Berz, 1995)
111994-2010: Technology in Curriculum 1994: Following development of National Standards in Music Education, MENC publishes “Opportunity-to-Learn” standards, including references toComputers, software, MIDI equipment, CD-ROMs, and other resourcesResearchers note that new models, techniques, strategies, and even philosophies must develop with the new technologies (Berz, 1995; Hebert, 2008; Lange, 2001).
121994-2010: Technology in Curriculum 1999: MENC publishes the addendum, “Opportunity-to-Learn Standards for Music Technology”2001: Despite growing awareness and use of technology for teachers’ own learning and correspondence, these same technologies were not integrated into the classroom for student learning (Bauer, 2001).
14National StandardsSinging, playing instruments, improvising are assisted through tools in music theory, piano pedagogy, music history, sheet music, virtual learning centers, practice-and-drill sites, and injury prevention.
15National StandardsComposing, reading, notating, and listening standards are supported through computer assisted instruction, distance learning, electronic encyclopedias, and online mentoring.
16National StandardsEvaluating, understanding relationships among other disciplines, and understanding music history and culture are particularly assisted by social networking aspects online: course-based e-discussions, direct contact with musicians and scholars, viewing performances and rehearsals, and musical life in all parts of the world (Bauer, 2001; Hebert, 2008; Mishra, 2004).
28Music Composition Online Mentoring Program Audience: EducatorsFeatures:Example of virtual learning community between upper elementary students and composer mentorsAlso contains video files designed to help students compose on Orff instrumentsFree browsing, subscription needed for posting
34Your Web Site Should Include: Advocacy for the music programStudent work via MP3 files is a primary draw to the siteHowever, discuss and maintain student privacy as necessary for your school community.Resource informationCalendar and concert information for parentsGroups to join such as youth choirs and string orchestrasHigh-quality local performancesLists of local private teachers(Thibeault, 2001)
54Redhotjazz.com http://redhotjazz.com/ Audience: Middle School to CollegeFeatures:Audio and video archives of countless mid-1900s jazz performancesJazz Bios and essaysAudio files are .ra, which use Realplayer: so get the free downloadFree
62Arts Edge.com http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/educators.aspx Audience: Middle Elementary to EducatorFeatures:Multimedia for teachers, families, and studentsHow-to links for teachers incorporating technology and the artsFree
94Parting Thoughts“The full potential for learning technologies cannot be realized by merely automating traditional models of teaching and learning. In other words, simply inserting technology into our current general, instrumental, and choral programs will result in only incremental gains in student learning” (Reese, 1999, p. 26).Using instructional technologies presents the opportunity to transform the nature of teaching and learning!
96References Bauer, W. I. (2001). Using the internet to enhance music teacher education. Journal of Music Teacher Education,11(1),Berz, W. L. & Bowman, J. (1995). An historical perspective onresearch cycles in music computer-based technology. Bulletinof the Council for Research in Music Education, 126,Hebert, D. G. (2008). Reflections on teaching the aesthetics andsociology of music online. International Review of the Aestheticsand Sociology of Music, 39(1),Lange, B. R. (2001). Hypermedia and ethnomusicology.Ethnomusicology, 45(1),
97References Mishra, J. (2004). Focusing internet searches for world music resources. General Music Today, 18(1),Reese, S. & Hickey, M. (1999). Internet-based musiccomposition and music teacher education.J.M.T.E.: Journal of Music Teacher Education, 9(1),25-32.Thibeault, M. D. (2001). Sharing music programsthrough the internet. Teaching Music. 9(1),Webster, P. (2002). Historical perspectives on technology andmusic. Music Educators Journal, 89(1),