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The Tree of Life An Introduction to Biological Diversity

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1 The Tree of Life An Introduction to Biological Diversity
Chapter 26 The Tree of Life An Introduction to Biological Diversity

2 Concept 26.1: Conditions on early Earth made the origin of life possible
That chemical and physical processes on early Earth produced very simple cells through a sequence of stages

3 Synthesis of Organic Compounds on Early Earth
Earth formed about 4.6 billion years ago Along with the rest of the solar system Earth’s early atmosphere Contained water vapor , sulfuric acid, methane etc

4 Laboratory experiments simulating an early Earth atmosphere
Have produced organic molecules from inorganic precursors. EXPERIMENT Miller and Urey set up a closed system in their laboratory to simulate conditions thought to have existed on early Earth. A warmed flask of water simulated the primeval sea. The strongly reducing “atmosphere” in the system consisted of H2, methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), and water vapor. Sparks were discharged in the synthetic atmosphere to mimic lightning. A condenser cooled the atmosphere, raining water and any dissolved compounds into the miniature sea. CH4 Electrode Water vapor NH3 H2 Condenser Cold water As material circulated through the apparatus, Miller and Urey periodically collected samples for analysis. They identified a variety of organic molecules, including amino acids such as alanine and glutamic acid that are common in the proteins of organisms. They also found many other amino acids and complex, oily hydrocarbons. RESULTS Cooled water containing organic molecules Organic molecules, a first step in the origin of life, can form in a strongly reducing atmosphere. CONCLUSION H2O Sample for chemical analysis Figure 26.2

5 Abiotic Synthesis of Polymers
Small organic molecules Polymerize when they are concentrated on hot sand, clay, or rock

6 Protobionts Protobionts
Are aggregates of abiotically produced molecules surrounded by a membrane or membrane-like structure

7 Protobionts-Could have formed spontaneously from abiotically produced organic compounds
Liposomes-Can form when lipids or other organic molecules are added to water

8 Figure 26.4a, b Glucose-phosphate 20 m Phosphorylase Starch Amylase
(a) Simple reproduction. This lipo- some is “giving birth” to smaller liposomes (LM). (b) Simple metabolism. If enzymes—in this case, phosphorylase and amylase—are included in the solution from which the droplets self-assemble, some liposomes can carry out simple metabolic reactions and export the products. Glucose-phosphate Phosphorylase Starch Amylase Maltose Phosphate Figure 26.4a, b

9 The “RNA World” and the Dawn of Natural Selection
The first genetic material Was RNA, not DNA

10 Complementary RNA copy
RNA molecules called ribozymes have been found to catalyze many different reactions, including Self-splicing Making complementary copies of short stretches of their own sequence or other short pieces of RNA Figure 26.5 Ribozyme (RNA molecule) Template Nucleotides Complementary RNA copy 3 5

11 Concept 26.2: The fossil record chronicles life on Earth

12 How Rocks and Fossils Are Dated
Sedimentary strata Reveal the relative ages of fossils

13 Index fossils Are similar fossils found in the same strata in different locations Allow strata at one location to be correlated with strata at another location Figure 26.6

14 Accumulating “daughter” isotope
The absolute ages of fossils Can be determined by radiometric dating 1 2 3 4 Accumulating “daughter” isotope Ratio of parent isotope to daughter isotope Remaining “parent” isotope Time (half-lives) 8 16 Figure 26.7

15 The geologic record Table 26.1

16 The fossil record chronicles a number of occasions
Mass Extinctions The fossil record chronicles a number of occasions When global environmental changes were so rapid and disruptive that a majority of species were swept away Millions of years ago 600 500 400 300 200 100 100 2,500 Number of taxonomic families 80 Permian mass extinction 2,000 Extinction rate 60 1,500 Extinction rate ( ) Number of families ( ) 40 1,000 Cretaceous mass extinction 20 500 Carboniferous Proterozoic eon Cambrian Ordovician Devonian Permian Cretaceous Silurian Paleogene Neogene Triassic Jurassic Figure 26.8 Paleozoic Mesozoic Ceno- zoic

17 There were 2 major mass extinctions, the Permian & the Cretaceous
The Permian extinction Claimed about 96% of marine animal species and 8 out of 27 orders of insects Is thought to have been caused by enormous volcanic eruptions

18 The Cretaceous extinction
Doomed many marine and terrestrial organisms, most notably the dinosaurs Is thought to have been caused by the impact of a large meteor NORTH AMERICA Chicxulub crater Yucatán Peninsula Figure 26.9

19 The oldest known fossils are stromatolites
Concept 26.3: As prokaryotes evolved, they exploited and changed young Earth The oldest known fossils are stromatolites Rocklike structures composed of layers of bacteria & sediment 3.5 billion years old

20 Lynn Margulis (top right), of the University of Massachussetts, and Kenneth Nealson, of the University of Southern California, are shown collecting bacterial mats in a Baja California lagoon. The mats are produced by colonies of bacteria that live in environments inhospitable to most other life. A section through a mat (inset) shows layers of sediment that adhere to the sticky bacteria as the bacteria migrate upward. Some bacterial mats form rocklike structures called stromatolites, such as these in Shark Bay, Western Australia. The Shark Bay stromatolites began forming about 3,000 years ago. The inset shows a section through a fossilized stromatolite that is about 3.5 billion years old. (a) (b) Figure 26.11a, b

21 Prokaryotes were Earth’s sole inhabitants
The First Prokaryotes Prokaryotes were Earth’s sole inhabitants From 3.5 to about 2 billion years ago

22 Electron Transport Systems
Were essential to early life

23 Photosynthesis and the Oxygen Revolution
The earliest types of photosynthesis Did not produce oxygen

24 Oxygenic photosynthesis
Probably evolved about 3.5 billion years ago in cyanobacteria Figure 26.12

25 When oxygen began to accumulate in the atmosphere about 2
When oxygen began to accumulate in the atmosphere about 2.7 billion years ago It posed a challenge for life It provided an opportunity to gain abundant energy from light It provided organisms an opportunity to exploit new ecosystems

26 Concept 26.4: Eukaryotic cells arose from symbioses and genetic exchanges between prokaryotes

27 The oldest fossils of eukaryotic cells
The First Eukaryotes The oldest fossils of eukaryotic cells Date back 2.1 billion years

28 Endosymbiotic Origin of Mitochondria and Plastids
The theory of endosymbiosis = mitochondria and plastids were formerly small prokaryotes living within larger host cells

29 The prokaryotic ancestors of mitochondria and plastids
Probably gained entry to the host cell as undigested prey or internal parasites Figure 26.13 Cytoplasm DNA Plasma membrane Ancestral prokaryote Infolding of plasma membrane Endoplasmic reticulum Nuclear envelope Nucleus Engulfing of aerobic heterotrophic Cell with nucleus and endomembrane system Mitochondrion eukaryote Plastid Engulfing of photosynthetic prokaryote in some cells Photosynthetic

30 The evidence supporting an endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria and plastids includes
Similarities in inner membrane structures and functions Both have their own circular DNA

31 Concept 26.5: Multicellularity evolved several times in eukaryotes
After the first eukaryotes evolved A great range of unicellular forms evolved Multicellular forms evolved also

32 The Earliest Multicellular Eukaryotes
The oldest known fossils of eukaryotes Are of relatively small algae that lived about 1.2 billion years ago

33 Chinese paleontologists recently described 570-million-year-old fossils
That are probably animal embryos Figure 26.15a, b 150 m 200 m (a) Two-cell stage (b) Later stage

34 The Colonial Connection
The first multicellular organisms were colonies Collections of autonomously replicating cells 10 m Figure 26.16

35 Some cells in the colonies
Became specialized for different functions The first cellular specializations Had already appeared in the prokaryotic world

36 The “Cambrian Explosion”
Most of the major phyla of animals Appear in the fossil record during the first 20 million years of the Cambrian period

37 Phyla of two animal phyla, Cnidaria and Porifera
Are somewhat older, dating from the late Proterozoic 500 Sponges Annelids Cnidarians Chordates Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Brachiopods Early Paleozoic era (Cambrian period) Millions of years ago 542 Late Proterozoic eon Figure 26.17

38 Colonization of Land by Plants, Fungi, and Animals
Colonized land about 500 million years ago

39 Earth’s continents are not fixed
Continental Drift Earth’s continents are not fixed They drift across our planet’s surface on great plates of crust that float on the hot underlying mantle

40 Figure 26.18 North American Plate Caribbean Juan de Fuca Cocos Plate
Pacific Nazca South African Scotia Plate Antarctic Arabian Eurasian Plate Philippine Indian Australian

41 Many important geological processes
Occur at plate boundaries or at weak points in the plates themselves Volcanoes and volcanic islands Trench Oceanic ridge Oceanic crust Seafloor spreading Subduction zone Figure 26.19

42 The formation of the supercontinent Pangaea during the late Paleozoic era
And its breakup during the Mesozoic era explain many biogeographic puzzles Figure 26.20 India collided with Eurasia just 10 million years ago, forming the Himalayas, the tallest and youngest of Earth’s major mountain ranges. The continents continue to drift. By the end of the Mesozoic, Laurasia and Gondwana separated into the present-day continents. By the mid-Mesozoic, Pangaea split into northern (Laurasia) and southern (Gondwana) landmasses. Cenozoic North America Eurasia Africa South America India Madagascar Antarctica Australia Laurasia Mesozoic Gondwana At the end of the Paleozoic, all of Earth’s landmasses were joined in the supercontinent Pangaea. Pangaea Paleozoic 251 135 65.5 Millions of years ago

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