3Tier 1: Classroom Management Three componentsRules and proceduresSafetyFacilitate conditions for learningMinimal number, high consistencyConsequencesMust be outlined at outsetMust be delivered consistentlyFocus on the positive consequencesRelationshipsHigh warmth/responsivenessHigh control/demandingness
5Take a break – regain self-control Reminder orredirectionCarry onTake a break – regain self-control1. Carry on2. Debrief later3. Possible consequence(i.e., loss of priviledge,reparation)Time out in buddy teachers room1. Carry on2. Debrief later3. Likely consequence(i.e., loss of priviledge,Reparation)4. Notify parentsTime out in officeWhen ready:1. Re-entry discussion/negotiation2. Likely consequence(i.e., loss of consequence, reparation)3. Notify parents
6At the level of the lesson... The following 5 areas are responsible for off-task time in the classroom:management/transitionsocializingdisciplineunoccupied/observingout of the room
7Differentiated Lesson Plan In groups:Select one sectionReadDecide how you will describe to classThink about one or two examples of how you could apply this principle in your classroom management lesson plan.Brief presentation (2-3 minutes)
9Tier 2: Specific intensive efforts Who receives Tier 2 Behavioural support?Number of office discipline referralsSuspensionsDetentionsAttendanceLatesWhat is Tier 2 intervention?Continuous availabilityMinimal effort required from staffVoluntary student participationOngoing data collection
10Who receives Tier 2? Standard methods are not working Time-out's often escalate to office visitsDisruption soon begins againIncidences of disruption not reducedTypically standard methods don't work for students who:Lack the cognitive resources to shift gears or exert their own controlsEngage in power strugglesThis is often difficult to determine. Safest to assume the first if you can't tell.
11Intro to Tier 2 ExerciseThink of a student who hasn't responded well to a Tier 1 intervention.Are they engaged in power struggles?Do they lack a skill necessary to regain their own controls?
12Power struggles They have a need to gain control Often originates from insecurity about their ability to succeed.Feelings of mistrust towards authorityGuidelines to help them rediscover a constructive use of power.Structure in elements of choiceBuild trust that you can help them succeed and help meet their needs.Have a visible web of communication
13Strategies for coping with power struggles Time out place/activityBargaining
14Break placeDiscuss classroom management plan with student but structure in some choice.Where would you like to go when you're having time out (regaining control/listening wall, etc...)What would you like to do there until you're ready to re-join the class?
15Bargaining Guidelines Steps: Know what you want Be specific about your bottom lineEstablish good mood and sense of humour.Steps:Name/state problemEmphasize choiceBargainSeal the deal
16Name the problem In a private meeting with the student notice: In specific termsUsing “I statements”In objective mannerBriefly“When I ask people to come quickly to group, I notice that you go in slow motion”“I notice that you make faces and whisper when some people are presenting in the group.”
17Emphasize student choice State clear expectations and limits but recognize that the student chooses how he/she works on them.“I want you to enjoy being in the group but I can't force you to do that.”“I know you have a lot to share with us and that you could contribute a lot to our class, but that's your decision to make. However, I cannot let you hurt others.”
18Bargaining State clearly what you want and provide 2- 3 examples. “I want to see you use your serious thinking in class. That means you ask good questions in math group, you write full page compositions during writing, and you help solve problems during class work.”Help them bargain by providing some possible examples.“Could it be that you would like extra time to read or work on the computer?”“Could it be that you would like an extra reminder or signal when you start to get silly?”
19Seal the dealCan end with a handshake, smile, or written signed contractMake sure that the language is specific. What, specifically does the student have to do? What specifically does the teacher have to do?Continue to implement consequences.
20Behavioural Skill Deficits Help teach the skillAdapt the environment
21Examples of skill instruction Group social skills instructionEnhancing listening and anger managementStating goals in positive terms (i.e. Keep hands to myself)Cueing procedure (evaluate yourself and group members at 5-min intervals)Recognition for meeting goals
22Types of Tier 2 Interventions ADHD (The Journey)Learn:Organizational skillsstrategies to help them pay attention when faced with distractionsTo identify cues that lead to socially desirable behaviourcognitive behavioural techniques to manoeuvre around obstacles to learningself-regulation
23Types of Tier 2 Interventions The Challenging Horizons programInterpersonal skills training (communication and listening skills)Study skills trainingOrganizational skillsKids TogetherListeningOrganizationSelf-monitoringImpulse controlProblem solving
24Overview of Tier 2 interventions (1) Agree on problem,(2) Develop explicit steps for the student to follow (i.e., put on a cue card, ring, poster)(3) Model steps,(4) Cue student,(5) Student initiates steps,(6) Student monitors their performance
25Tier 2 exerciseConsider the student you thought of that didn't respond to Tier 1 intervention. Think of a Tier 2 strategy that might be useful for your student?Are they engaged in a power struggle? If so, could you structure in choice?Do they need to learn specific skills? If so, which ones?
26Progress monitoring Checklists Rating scales Classroom observations i.e., Student is prepared for work each period Yes ______ No ______Rating scalesi.e., Student is prepared for work each period: Almost always, frequently, often, somewhat often, sometimes, almost never, neverClassroom observationsi.e., Student has received ____ detentions, lates, time-outs, etc.
27Progress monitoring exercise Design a method to monitor the progress of your studentChecklist?Rating scale?Classroom observations?Progress monitoring in Tier 2 shouldn't be too time intensive for the teacher
28Tier 3: Behavioural intervention If student has not made sufficient progress during your progress monitoring for Tier 2 move to Tier 3Tier 3: Step#1Consult with special education teamConduct a functional behavioural assessment
29Functional Behaviour Analysis Purpose: To determine why the student is behaving in the way that they are.Identify the problemGather informationIndirect assessmentDirect observationAnalyze A-B-C (antecedent, behaviour, consequence)Generate hypotheses regarding the function/purpose of the behaviourTest hypotheses by manipulating the variables believed to trigger the behaviour and/or the possible consequencesDevelop behaviour management planProgress monitor
30Functional Behaviour Analysis Exercise Either think about or create a case study of a student who has not improved with Tier 2 intervention.What is the target behaviour that is causing the problem.
31Step 1: Identifying the Problem Pinpoint the behaviour causing learning or discipline problemsIdentify and define the behaviour in specific terms (i.e., “During outside play and/or free time with classmates, Marco uses inappropriate language.”)
32Case Study: Identifying the Problem Define these problems in more specific termsDeWayne is disruptive.Finley is disrespectful.Kendra is slow.
33ExerciseDefine the target behaviour of your case study in specific terms
34Skill deficit or behavioural issue? Is there evidence to suggest that the student does not know how to perform the skill and therefore cannot?Does the student understand the behavioural expectations for the situation?
35Step 2: Gather Information Indirect AssessmentInterviews with teachers and other adults who have direct contact with the student and the studentChecklistsi.e., Student is prepared for work each period Yes ______ No ______Rating scalesi.e., Student is prepared for work each period: Almost always, frequently, often, somewhat often, sometimes, almost never, neverEmphasize the following:COPYRIGHT: This information is copyright free. Readers are encouraged to copy and share it, but please credit the Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice.
36Indirect Assessment: Important Interview Questions In what settings do you observe the behavior?Are there any settings where the behavior does not occur?Who is present when the behavior occurs?What activities or interactions take place just prior to the behavior?What usually happens immediately after the behavior?
37Step 2: Gather information Direct observation: teacher notes how often a target behaviour occursAnecdotal recording: Teacher observes the student in a particular setting and writes down everything that occurs in that setting9:30 AM Language Arts – Micah enters the classroom and walks around the room twice, then sits in his chair. He looks out of the window.9:32 AM Micah speaks out: Teacher can I go to the office? Teacher responds: Micah, get your workbook out and turn to page 56.9:33 AM Micah gets workbook out and begins to look at the pictures on several of the pages. Continues for quite some time....
38Step 2: Gather information Event recordingThe teacher marks or tallies the number of times a specific behaviour occurs.Time samplingThe teacher marks or tallies the number of times a specific behaviour occurs for a specific time period (2 or 5 min.) various times throughout the day.Interval recordingTeacher notes whether a target behaviour is occurring or not occurring during consecutive intervals
39Step 2: Gather information Duration recordingRecording the length of time that a student engages in a target behaviourLatency recordingRecording the time elapsed between a stimulus (i.e., directive) and response (i.e., following directive)Inter-response timeRecording the length of time between behaviours or responses
40Exercise What are some ways you would gather information? Indirect assessmentInterviews, checklists, rating scalesDirect observationsEvent recording, time sampling, interval recording, duration recording, latency recording, inter-response time
41Step 3: Analyze information to identify function of behaviour Setting eventsEvents that occur in another setting prior to the target behaviour (i.e., argument with friends)AntecedentsWhat happened prior to the behaviour that resulted in the behaviourBehaviourSpecific and objectiveConsequenceWhat followed as a result of the behaviour
42When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers present multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful.Avoid difficult tasksWhat function?Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequenceSequoia makesnegative self-statements &writes profanelanguageTeacher sendsSequoia tooffice for beingdisrespectfulMisses 12:30medicationTeachersmakemultipletask demands
43Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased several times by his friends before class. When he enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair. Caesar immediately says “what are you staring at?” His teacher immediately sends him to in-school detention.Escape adult &peer attentionWhat function?Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequenceCaesar isteased severaltimes about hishair by hisfriends beforeclassHis teacherstares at hishair in classCaesar askshis teacherwhat she’sstaring atHis teachersends him toin-schooldetention
44Cleo is new to the 6th grade, & English is her second language Cleo is new to the 6th grade, & English is her second language. When another student approaches & says something to her in English, Cleo turns away. The other student walks away. This happens several times during the day.Escape peer attentionWhat function?Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequenceNew studentStudentapproaches &speaks inEnglishCleo turnsawayOtherstudent walksaway
45When his teacher asks him what the capitol city of a country is, Napoleon gives the correct answers. His teacher praises his correct answer, & tells him he may work by himself or a friend on the rest of the assignment.Access peer &adult attentionWhat function?Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequenceTeacher askswhat capitolcity of countryisNapoleongive correctanswerTeacher givesverbal praise& time to workwith a friendNone
46As Veloce is walking, other kids look at him & say “what’s up As Veloce is walking, other kids look at him & say “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & call him “weirdo.”Access peer attentionWhat function?Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence??Look at him.“What’s up!”“Who yalookin’ at?”“Ya wantSome?” “Yatalkin’ to me?Kids shakeheads &call him“weirdo”
47Fundamental Rule“You should not propose to reduce a problem behaviour without also identifying alternative, desired behaviours the person should perform instead of problem behaviour” (O’Neill et al., 1997, p. 71).
48Summary Statement What is the desired behavior? What is the AlternativeTypicalConsequenceSummary StatementWhat is likelyto be theresult or consequence?What is thecontext?What happenedimmediately beforethe PB?What is thepresentingproblem?Setting EventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequencesWhat isthe result?What happens?
49ExerciseFor every behaviour listed in your anecdotal recording identify the:SettingAntecedentBehaviourConsequenceList a alternative positive behaviour for each behaviour you identified.
50Step 4: Generate hypotheses Generate hypotheses regarding function of behaviourConsider setting events, antecedents, and consequencesExercise: Generate hypotheses regarding the function of behaviour for your case studyExample: Daryl calls out during instruction. A functional behavioural assessment might reveal the function of the behaviour is to gain attention (i.e., verbal approval of classmates), avoid instruction (i.e., difficult assignment), seek excitement (i.e., external stimulation), or both to gain attention and avoid a low-interest subject.
51Step 5: Test hypothesesDevelop a plan to test the hypotheses you've generated by manipulating:Setting eventAntecedentConsequence
52Step 6: Make & Implement Behaviour Intervention Plan Manipulate the setting events, antecedents, and/or consequences of the behaviourTeach more acceptable replacement behaviours that serve the same function as the inappropriate behaviourImplement changes in curriculum and instructional strategiesModify the physical environment.
53Step 7: Monitor progress and adjust plan accordingly Behaviour Intervention Plans must be monitored and data collected and recorded on a regular basis.Can use:Indirect assessmentInterviews, checklists, rating scalesDirect assessmentAnecdotal recording, event recording, time sampling, interval recording, duration recording, latency recording, inter- response timeModify plan if neededContinue plan if warranted and develop phase out program as appropriate