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Classroom management Tier 1: Overall Classroom management

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1 Classroom management Tier 1: Overall Classroom management
Tier 2: Specific intensive efforts Tier 3: Behaviour analysis and specific intervention


3 Tier 1: Classroom Management
Three components Rules and procedures Safety Facilitate conditions for learning Minimal number, high consistency Consequences Must be outlined at outset Must be delivered consistently Focus on the positive consequences Relationships High warmth/responsiveness High control/demandingness

4 Tier 1 Example Appendix D of textbook summarized

5 Take a break – regain self-control
Reminder or redirection Carry on Take a break – regain self-control 1. Carry on 2. Debrief later 3. Possible consequence (i.e., loss of priviledge, reparation) Time out in buddy teachers room 1. Carry on 2. Debrief later 3. Likely consequence (i.e., loss of priviledge, Reparation) 4. Notify parents Time out in office When ready: 1. Re-entry discussion/negotiation 2. Likely consequence (i.e., loss of consequence, reparation) 3. Notify parents

6 At the level of the lesson...
The following 5 areas are responsible for off-task time in the classroom: management/transition socializing discipline unoccupied/observing out of the room

7 Differentiated Lesson Plan
In groups: Select one section Read Decide how you will describe to class Think about one or two examples of how you could apply this principle in your classroom management lesson plan. Brief presentation (2-3 minutes)


9 Tier 2: Specific intensive efforts
Who receives Tier 2 Behavioural support? Number of office discipline referrals Suspensions Detentions Attendance Lates What is Tier 2 intervention? Continuous availability Minimal effort required from staff Voluntary student participation Ongoing data collection

10 Who receives Tier 2? Standard methods are not working
Time-out's often escalate to office visits Disruption soon begins again Incidences of disruption not reduced Typically standard methods don't work for students who: Lack the cognitive resources to shift gears or exert their own controls Engage in power struggles This is often difficult to determine. Safest to assume the first if you can't tell.

11 Intro to Tier 2 Exercise Think of a student who hasn't responded well to a Tier 1 intervention. Are they engaged in power struggles? Do they lack a skill necessary to regain their own controls?

12 Power struggles They have a need to gain control
Often originates from insecurity about their ability to succeed. Feelings of mistrust towards authority Guidelines to help them rediscover a constructive use of power. Structure in elements of choice Build trust that you can help them succeed and help meet their needs. Have a visible web of communication

13 Strategies for coping with power struggles
Time out place/activity Bargaining

14 Break place Discuss classroom management plan with student but structure in some choice. Where would you like to go when you're having time out (regaining control/listening wall, etc...) What would you like to do there until you're ready to re-join the class?

15 Bargaining Guidelines Steps: Know what you want
Be specific about your bottom line Establish good mood and sense of humour. Steps: Name/state problem Emphasize choice Bargain Seal the deal

16 Name the problem In a private meeting with the student notice:
In specific terms Using “I statements” In objective manner Briefly “When I ask people to come quickly to group, I notice that you go in slow motion” “I notice that you make faces and whisper when some people are presenting in the group.”

17 Emphasize student choice
State clear expectations and limits but recognize that the student chooses how he/she works on them. “I want you to enjoy being in the group but I can't force you to do that.” “I know you have a lot to share with us and that you could contribute a lot to our class, but that's your decision to make. However, I cannot let you hurt others.”

18 Bargaining State clearly what you want and provide 2- 3 examples.
“I want to see you use your serious thinking in class. That means you ask good questions in math group, you write full page compositions during writing, and you help solve problems during class work.” Help them bargain by providing some possible examples. “Could it be that you would like extra time to read or work on the computer?” “Could it be that you would like an extra reminder or signal when you start to get silly?”

19 Seal the deal Can end with a handshake, smile, or written signed contract Make sure that the language is specific. What, specifically does the student have to do? What specifically does the teacher have to do? Continue to implement consequences.

20 Behavioural Skill Deficits
Help teach the skill Adapt the environment

21 Examples of skill instruction
Group social skills instruction Enhancing listening and anger management Stating goals in positive terms (i.e. Keep hands to myself) Cueing procedure (evaluate yourself and group members at 5-min intervals) Recognition for meeting goals

22 Types of Tier 2 Interventions
ADHD (The Journey) Learn: Organizational skills strategies to help them pay attention when faced with distractions To identify cues that lead to socially desirable behaviour cognitive behavioural techniques to manoeuvre around obstacles to learning self-regulation

23 Types of Tier 2 Interventions
The Challenging Horizons program Interpersonal skills training (communication and listening skills) Study skills training Organizational skills Kids Together Listening Organization Self-monitoring Impulse control Problem solving

24 Overview of Tier 2 interventions
(1) Agree on problem, (2) Develop explicit steps for the student to follow (i.e., put on a cue card, ring, poster) (3) Model steps, (4) Cue student, (5) Student initiates steps, (6) Student monitors their performance

25 Tier 2 exercise Consider the student you thought of that didn't respond to Tier 1 intervention. Think of a Tier 2 strategy that might be useful for your student? Are they engaged in a power struggle? If so, could you structure in choice? Do they need to learn specific skills? If so, which ones?

26 Progress monitoring Checklists Rating scales Classroom observations
i.e., Student is prepared for work each period Yes ______ No ______ Rating scales i.e., Student is prepared for work each period: Almost always, frequently, often, somewhat often, sometimes, almost never, never Classroom observations i.e., Student has received ____ detentions, lates, time-outs, etc.

27 Progress monitoring exercise
Design a method to monitor the progress of your student Checklist? Rating scale? Classroom observations? Progress monitoring in Tier 2 shouldn't be too time intensive for the teacher

28 Tier 3: Behavioural intervention
If student has not made sufficient progress during your progress monitoring for Tier 2 move to Tier 3 Tier 3: Step#1 Consult with special education team Conduct a functional behavioural assessment

29 Functional Behaviour Analysis
Purpose: To determine why the student is behaving in the way that they are. Identify the problem Gather information Indirect assessment Direct observation Analyze A-B-C (antecedent, behaviour, consequence) Generate hypotheses regarding the function/purpose of the behaviour Test hypotheses by manipulating the variables believed to trigger the behaviour and/or the possible consequences Develop behaviour management plan Progress monitor

30 Functional Behaviour Analysis Exercise
Either think about or create a case study of a student who has not improved with Tier 2 intervention. What is the target behaviour that is causing the problem.

31 Step 1: Identifying the Problem
Pinpoint the behaviour causing learning or discipline problems Identify and define the behaviour in specific terms (i.e., “During outside play and/or free time with classmates, Marco uses inappropriate language.”)

32 Case Study: Identifying the Problem
Define these problems in more specific terms DeWayne is disruptive. Finley is disrespectful. Kendra is slow.

33 Exercise Define the target behaviour of your case study in specific terms

34 Skill deficit or behavioural issue?
Is there evidence to suggest that the student does not know how to perform the skill and therefore cannot? Does the student understand the behavioural expectations for the situation?

35 Step 2: Gather Information
Indirect Assessment Interviews with teachers and other adults who have direct contact with the student and the student Checklists i.e., Student is prepared for work each period Yes ______ No ______ Rating scales i.e., Student is prepared for work each period: Almost always, frequently, often, somewhat often, sometimes, almost never, never Emphasize the following: COPYRIGHT:  This information is copyright free. Readers are encouraged to copy and share it, but please credit the Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice.

36 Indirect Assessment: Important Interview Questions
In what settings do you observe the behavior? Are there any settings where the behavior does not occur? Who is present when the behavior occurs? What activities or interactions take place just prior to the behavior? What usually happens immediately after the behavior?

37 Step 2: Gather information
Direct observation: teacher notes how often a target behaviour occurs Anecdotal recording: Teacher observes the student in a particular setting and writes down everything that occurs in that setting 9:30 AM Language Arts – Micah enters the classroom and walks around the room twice, then sits in his chair. He looks out of the window. 9:32 AM Micah speaks out: Teacher can I go to the office? Teacher responds: Micah, get your workbook out and turn to page 56. 9:33 AM Micah gets workbook out and begins to look at the pictures on several of the pages. Continues for quite some time....

38 Step 2: Gather information
Event recording The teacher marks or tallies the number of times a specific behaviour occurs. Time sampling The teacher marks or tallies the number of times a specific behaviour occurs for a specific time period (2 or 5 min.) various times throughout the day. Interval recording Teacher notes whether a target behaviour is occurring or not occurring during consecutive intervals

39 Step 2: Gather information
Duration recording Recording the length of time that a student engages in a target behaviour Latency recording Recording the time elapsed between a stimulus (i.e., directive) and response (i.e., following directive) Inter-response time Recording the length of time between behaviours or responses

40 Exercise What are some ways you would gather information?
Indirect assessment Interviews, checklists, rating scales Direct observations Event recording, time sampling, interval recording, duration recording, latency recording, inter-response time

41 Step 3: Analyze information to identify function of behaviour
Setting events Events that occur in another setting prior to the target behaviour (i.e., argument with friends) Antecedents What happened prior to the behaviour that resulted in the behaviour Behaviour Specific and objective Consequence What followed as a result of the behaviour

42 When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers present multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful. Avoid difficult tasks What function? Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence Sequoia makes negative self- statements & writes profane language Teacher sends Sequoia to office for being disrespectful Misses 12:30 medication Teachers make multiple task demands

43 Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased several times by his friends before class. When he enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair. Caesar immediately says “what are you staring at?” His teacher immediately sends him to in-school detention. Escape adult & peer attention What function? Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence Caesar is teased several times about his hair by his friends before class His teacher stares at his hair in class Caesar asks his teacher what she’s staring at His teacher sends him to in-school detention

44 Cleo is new to the 6th grade, & English is her second language
Cleo is new to the 6th grade, & English is her second language. When another student approaches & says something to her in English, Cleo turns away. The other student walks away. This happens several times during the day. Escape peer attention What function? Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence New student Student approaches & speaks in English Cleo turns away Other student walks away

45 When his teacher asks him what the capitol city of a country is, Napoleon gives the correct answers. His teacher praises his correct answer, & tells him he may work by himself or a friend on the rest of the assignment. Access peer & adult attention What function? Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence Teacher asks what capitol city of country is Napoleon give correct answer Teacher gives verbal praise & time to work with a friend None

46 As Veloce is walking, other kids look at him & say “what’s up
As Veloce is walking, other kids look at him & say “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & call him “weirdo.” Access peer attention What function? Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence ?? Look at him. “What’s up!” “Who ya lookin’ at?” “Ya want Some?” “Ya talkin’ to me? Kids shake heads & call him “weirdo”

47 Fundamental Rule “You should not propose to reduce a problem behaviour without also identifying alternative, desired behaviours the person should perform instead of problem behaviour” (O’Neill et al., 1997, p. 71).

48 Summary Statement What is the desired behavior? What is the
Alternative Typical Consequence Summary Statement What is likely to be the result or consequence? What is the context? What happened immediately before the PB? What is the presenting problem? Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences What is the result? What happens?

49 Exercise For every behaviour listed in your anecdotal recording identify the: Setting Antecedent Behaviour Consequence List a alternative positive behaviour for each behaviour you identified.

50 Step 4: Generate hypotheses
Generate hypotheses regarding function of behaviour Consider setting events, antecedents, and consequences Exercise: Generate hypotheses regarding the function of behaviour for your case study Example: Daryl calls out during instruction. A functional behavioural assessment might reveal the function of the behaviour is to gain attention (i.e., verbal approval of classmates), avoid instruction (i.e., difficult assignment), seek excitement (i.e., external stimulation), or both to gain attention and avoid a low-interest subject.

51 Step 5: Test hypotheses Develop a plan to test the hypotheses you've generated by manipulating: Setting event Antecedent Consequence

52 Step 6: Make & Implement Behaviour Intervention Plan
Manipulate the setting events, antecedents, and/or consequences of the behaviour Teach more acceptable replacement behaviours that serve the same function as the inappropriate behaviour Implement changes in curriculum and instructional strategies Modify the physical environment.

53 Step 7: Monitor progress and adjust plan accordingly
Behaviour Intervention Plans must be monitored and data collected and recorded on a regular basis. Can use: Indirect assessment Interviews, checklists, rating scales Direct assessment Anecdotal recording, event recording, time sampling, interval recording, duration recording, latency recording, inter- response time Modify plan if needed Continue plan if warranted and develop phase out program as appropriate

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