Presentation on theme: "Classroom management Tier 1: Overall Classroom management Tier 2: Specific intensive efforts Tier 3: Behaviour analysis and specific intervention."— Presentation transcript:
Classroom management Tier 1: Overall Classroom management Tier 2: Specific intensive efforts Tier 3: Behaviour analysis and specific intervention
Tier 1: Classroom Management Three components Rules and procedures Safety Facilitate conditions for learning Minimal number, high consistency Consequences Must be outlined at outset Must be delivered consistently Focus on the positive consequences Relationships High warmth/responsiveness High control/demandingness
Tier 1 Example Appendix D of textbook summarized
1. Carry on 2. Debrief later 3. Likely consequence (i.e., loss of priviledge, Reparation) 4. Notify parents Time out in buddy teachers room When ready: 1. Re-entry discussion/negotiation 2. Likely consequence (i.e., loss of consequence, reparation) 3. Notify parents Time out in office Carry on Reminder or redirection Take a break – regain self-control 1. Carry on 2. Debrief later 3. Possible consequence (i.e., loss of priviledge, reparation)
At the level of the lesson... The following 5 areas are responsible for off-task time in the classroom: management/transition socializing discipline unoccupied/observing out of the room
Differentiated Lesson Plan In groups: Select one section Read Decide how you will describe to class Think about one or two examples of how you could apply this principle in your classroom management lesson plan. Brief presentation (2-3 minutes)
Tier 2: Specific intensive efforts Who receives Tier 2 Behavioural support? Number of office discipline referrals Suspensions Detentions Attendance Lates What is Tier 2 intervention? Continuous availability Minimal effort required from staff Voluntary student participation Ongoing data collection
Who receives Tier 2? Standard methods are not working Time-out's often escalate to office visits Disruption soon begins again Incidences of disruption not reduced Typically standard methods don't work for students who: Lack the cognitive resources to shift gears or exert their own controls Engage in power struggles This is often difficult to determine. Safest to assume the first if you can't tell.
Intro to Tier 2 Exercise Think of a student who hasn't responded well to a Tier 1 intervention. – Are they engaged in power struggles? – Do they lack a skill necessary to regain their own controls?
Power struggles They have a need to gain control Often originates from insecurity about their ability to succeed. Feelings of mistrust towards authority Guidelines to help them rediscover a constructive use of power. Structure in elements of choice Build trust that you can help them succeed and help meet their needs. Have a visible web of communication
Strategies for coping with power struggles Time out place/activity Bargaining
Break place Discuss classroom management plan with student but structure in some choice. Where would you like to go when you're having time out (regaining control/listening wall, etc...) What would you like to do there until you're ready to re-join the class?
Bargaining Guidelines Know what you want Be specific about your bottom line Establish good mood and sense of humour. Steps: 1.Name/state problem 2.Emphasize choice 3.Bargain 4.Seal the deal
Name the problem In a private meeting with the student notice: In specific terms Using I statements In objective manner Briefly When I ask people to come quickly to group, I notice that you go in slow motion I notice that you make faces and whisper when some people are presenting in the group.
Emphasize student choice State clear expectations and limits but recognize that the student chooses how he/she works on them. I want you to enjoy being in the group but I can't force you to do that. I know you have a lot to share with us and that you could contribute a lot to our class, but that's your decision to make. However, I cannot let you hurt others.
Bargaining State clearly what you want and provide 2- 3 examples. I want to see you use your serious thinking in class. That means you ask good questions in math group, you write full page compositions during writing, and you help solve problems during class work. Help them bargain by providing some possible examples. Could it be that you would like extra time to read or work on the computer? Could it be that you would like an extra reminder or signal when you start to get silly?
Seal the deal Can end with a handshake, smile, or written signed contract Make sure that the language is specific. What, specifically does the student have to do? What specifically does the teacher have to do? Continue to implement consequences.
Behavioural Skill Deficits Help teach the skill Adapt the environment
Examples of skill instruction Group social skills instruction Enhancing listening and anger management Stating goals in positive terms (i.e. Keep hands to myself) Cueing procedure (evaluate yourself and group members at 5-min intervals) Recognition for meeting goals
Types of Tier 2 Interventions ADHD (The Journey) Learn: Organizational skills strategies to help them pay attention when faced with distractions To identify cues that lead to socially desirable behaviour cognitive behavioural techniques to manoeuvre around obstacles to learning self-regulation
Types of Tier 2 Interventions The Challenging Horizons program Interpersonal skills training (communication and listening skills) Study skills training Organizational skills Kids Together Listening Organization Self-monitoring Impulse control Problem solving
Overview of Tier 2 interventions (1) Agree on problem, (2) Develop explicit steps for the student to follow (i.e., put on a cue card, ring, poster) (3) Model steps, (4) Cue student, (5) Student initiates steps, (6) Student monitors their performance
Tier 2 exercise Consider the student you thought of that didn't respond to Tier 1 intervention. Think of a Tier 2 strategy that might be useful for your student? – Are they engaged in a power struggle? If so, could you structure in choice? – Do they need to learn specific skills? If so, which ones?
Progress monitoring Checklists i.e., Student is prepared for work each period Yes ______ No ______ Rating scales i.e., Student is prepared for work each period: Almost always, frequently, often, somewhat often, sometimes, almost never, never Classroom observations i.e., Student has received ____ detentions, lates, time-outs, etc.
Progress monitoring exercise Design a method to monitor the progress of your student Checklist? Rating scale? Classroom observations? Progress monitoring in Tier 2 shouldn't be too time intensive for the teacher
Tier 3: Behavioural intervention If student has not made sufficient progress during your progress monitoring for Tier 2 move to Tier 3 Tier 3: Step#1 Consult with special education team Conduct a functional behavioural assessment
Functional Behaviour Analysis Purpose: To determine why the student is behaving in the way that they are. 1. Identify the problem 2. Gather information 1. Indirect assessment 2. Direct observation 3. Analyze A-B-C (antecedent, behaviour, consequence) 4. Generate hypotheses regarding the function/purpose of the behaviour 5. Test hypotheses by manipulating the variables believed to trigger the behaviour and/or the possible consequences 6.Develop behaviour management plan 7.Progress monitor
Functional Behaviour Analysis Exercise Either think about or create a case study of a student who has not improved with Tier 2 intervention. What is the target behaviour that is causing the problem.
Step 1: Identifying the Problem Pinpoint the behaviour causing learning or discipline problems Identify and define the behaviour in specific terms (i.e., During outside play and/or free time with classmates, Marco uses inappropriate language.)
Case Study: Identifying the Problem Define these problems in more specific terms DeWayne is disruptive. Finley is disrespectful. Kendra is slow.
Exercise Define the target behaviour of your case study in specific terms
Skill deficit or behavioural issue? Is there evidence to suggest that the student does not know how to perform the skill and therefore cannot? Does the student understand the behavioural expectations for the situation?
Step 2: Gather Information Indirect Assessment Interviews with teachers and other adults who have direct contact with the student and the student Checklists i.e., Student is prepared for work each period Yes ______ No ______ Rating scales i.e., Student is prepared for work each period: Almost always, frequently, often, somewhat often, sometimes, almost never, never
Indirect Assessment: Important Interview Questions In what settings do you observe the behavior? Are there any settings where the behavior does not occur? Who is present when the behavior occurs? What activities or interactions take place just prior to the behavior? What usually happens immediately after the behavior?
Step 2: Gather information Direct observation: t eacher notes how often a target behaviour occurs 1)Anecdotal recording: Teacher observes the student in a particular setting and writes down everything that occurs in that setting 9:30 AMLanguage Arts – Micah enters the classroom and walks around the room twice, then sits in his chair. He looks out of the window. 9:32 AM Micah speaks out: Teacher can I go to the office? Teacher responds: Micah, get your workbook out and turn to page 56. 9:33 AM Micah gets workbook out and begins to look at the pictures on several of the pages. Continues for quite some time.... :
Step 2: Gather information 1) Event recording The teacher marks or tallies the number of times a specific behaviour occurs. 2) Time sampling The teacher marks or tallies the number of times a specific behaviour occurs for a specific time period (2 or 5 min.) various times throughout the day. 3) Interval recording Teacher notes whether a target behaviour is occurring or not occurring during consecutive intervals
Step 2: Gather information 1) Duration recording Recording the length of time that a student engages in a target behaviour 2) Latency recording Recording the time elapsed between a stimulus (i.e., directive) and response (i.e., following directive) 3) Inter-response time Recording the length of time between behaviours or responses
Exercise What are some ways you would gather information? Indirect assessment Interviews, checklists, rating scales Direct observations Event recording, time sampling, interval recording, duration recording, latency recording, inter-response time
Step 3: Analyze information to identify function of behaviour Setting events Events that occur in another setting prior to the target behaviour (i.e., argument with friends) Antecedents What happened prior to the behaviour that resulted in the behaviour Behaviour Specific and objective Consequence What followed as a result of the behaviour
When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers present multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful. Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence Misses 12:30 medication Teachers make multiple task demands Sequoia makes negative self- statements & writes profane language Teacher sends Sequoia to office for being disrespectful What function? Avoid difficult tasks
Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence Caesar is teased several times about his hair by his friends before class His teacher stares at his hair in class Caesar asks his teacher what shes staring at His teacher sends him to in-school detention Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased several times by his friends before class. When he enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair. Caesar immediately says what are you staring at? His teacher immediately sends him to in- school detention. What function? Escape adult & peer attention
Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence Cleo is new to the 6th grade, & English is her second language. When another student approaches & says something to her in English, Cleo turns away. The other student walks away. This happens several times during the day. New studentStudent approaches & speaks in English Cleo turns away Other student walks away What function? Escape peer attention
Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence When his teacher asks him what the capitol city of a country is, Napoleon gives the correct answers. His teacher praises his correct answer, & tells him he may work by himself or a friend on the rest of the assignment. None Teacher asks what capitol city of country is Napoleon give correct answer Teacher gives verbal praise & time to work with a friend What function? Access peer & adult attention
Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence As Veloce is walking, other kids look at him & say whats up? He looks back and says: Who ya lookin at?! Ya want some of this?! Ya talkin to me?! Kids shake their heads & call him weirdo. ??Look at him. Whats up! Who ya lookin at? Ya want Some? Ya talkin to me? Kids shake heads & call him weirdo What function? Access peer attention
Fundamental Rule You should not propose to reduce a problem behaviour without also identifying alternative, desired behaviours the person should perform instead of problem behaviour (ONeill et al., 1997, p. 71).
What is the context? What happened immediately before the PB? What is the presenting problem? What is the result? What happens? Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior What is the desired behavior? Desired Alternative Typical Consequence Summary Statement What is likely to be the result or consequence?
Exercise For every behaviour listed in your anecdotal recording identify the: Setting Antecedent Behaviour Consequence List a alternative positive behaviour for each behaviour you identified.
Step 4: Generate hypotheses Generate hypotheses regarding function of behaviour Consider setting events, antecedents, and consequences Exercise: Generate hypotheses regarding the function of behaviour for your case study Example: Daryl calls out during instruction. A functional behavioural assessment might reveal the function of the behaviour is to gain attention (i.e., verbal approval of classmates), avoid instruction (i.e., difficult assignment), seek excitement (i.e., external stimulation), or both to gain attention and avoid a low-interest subject.
Step 5: Test hypotheses Develop a plan to test the hypotheses you've generated by manipulating: Setting event Antecedent Consequence
Step 6: Make & Implement Behaviour Intervention Plan Manipulate the setting events, antecedents, and/or consequences of the behaviour Teach more acceptable replacement behaviours that serve the same function as the inappropriate behaviour Implement changes in curriculum and instructional strategies Modify the physical environment.
Step 7: Monitor progress and adjust plan accordingly Behaviour Intervention Plans must be monitored and data collected and recorded on a regular basis. Can use: Indirect assessment Interviews, checklists, rating scales Direct assessment Anecdotal recording, event recording, time sampling, interval recording, duration recording, latency recording, inter- response time Modify plan if needed Continue plan if warranted and develop phase out program as appropriate