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Using one or more research studies, explain cross-cultural differences in prosocial behavior.

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Presentation on theme: "Using one or more research studies, explain cross-cultural differences in prosocial behavior."— Presentation transcript:

1 Using one or more research studies, explain cross-cultural differences in prosocial behavior.

2 Sociocultural factors in prosocial behavior Cultural norms, socialization practices in the family, and socioeconomic status are factors that influence how and when prosocial (or altruistic) behavior is exhibited. Children learn cultural norms and practices from others through observation and through reinforcement. Using one or more research studies, explain cross-cultural differences in prosocial behavior.

3 Sociocultural factors in prosocial behavior Cultural dimensions such as individualism and collectivism seem to influence the degree to which prosocial behavior is encouraged in children. Which type do you think exhibits more prosocial behavior.? Using one or more research studies, explain cross-cultural differences in prosocial behavior.

4 Comparison of prosocial behavior in six cultures as a result of childrearing practices Whiting and Whiting (1975) Naturalistic observation The researchers observed children between the ages of 3 and 11 years in six different countries (Kenya, the Philippines, Japan, India, Mexico and the USA) during their daily interactions with other people. Using one or more research studies, explain cross-cultural differences in prosocial behavior.

5 Comparison of prosocial behavior in six cultures as a result of childrearing practices Whiting and Whiting (1975) Results showed consistent differences in the degree of prosocial behavior in children among the studied cultures. Children from Mexico, and the Philippines generally acted more prosocially than those from Japan, India, and the USA. The most prosocial children were from the most traditional society, in rural Kenya. The most egoistic children came from the most complex modern society, the USA. Using one or more research studies, explain cross-cultural differences in prosocial behavior.

6 WHY? One important difference was how much children participated in household chores and in the care of younger children. In the most prosocial cultures people tended to live together in extended families, the female role was important, and women’s contribution to the family’s economy was greater. In these cultures women delegated more responsibility to their children. Using one or more research studies, explain cross-cultural differences in prosocial behavior.

7 Why? In cultures (e.g. the USA) where children are paid to do household chores or don’t participate at all, the same degree of prosocial behavior was not observed. Using one or more research studies, explain cross-cultural differences in prosocial behavior.

8 Modernization The results overall indicate that degree of modernization influences prosocial behavior. This was attributed to different child-rearing patterns and cultural dimensions such as individualism and collectivism. Using one or more research studies, explain cross-cultural differences in prosocial behavior.

9 Cultural norms and moral values influence the perception of social responsibility Miller et al. (1990) The researchers interviewed 400 individuals (adults and children) on what to do in hypothetical situations where a person had failed to help someone in need. The situations were either life threatening, moderately serious, or a minor threat. The participants in this cross-cultural study were North Americans and Hindu Indians. Using one or more research studies, explain cross-cultural differences in prosocial behavior.

10 Cultural norms and moral values influence the perception of social responsibility Miller et al. (1990) Hindu Indians tended to see it as a moral duty to help in all situations. North American participants tended to view social responsibility and helping as personal choice. Adults in the USA were also more likely to say that liking the person in need affected their moral responsibility to help the person. Using one or more research studies, explain cross-cultural differences in prosocial behavior.


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