1/1/2014 What is a Life Cycle? from the time a seed is planted until a seed is produced
1/1/2014 What are the Life Cycles? Annuals, Biennials, & Perennials
1/1/2014 Annual complete life cycle in one growing season can be summer annuals (spring wheat, barley) or winter annuals (winter wheat)
1/1/2014 Biennials require two growing seasons to produce seed first season plant produces vegetation, second season seed (sugar beet, carrot)
1/1/2014 Perennials indefinite growth, can produce seed annually (grasses, trees, shrubs, onion)
1/1/2014 What is a Seed? package containing an embryo (miniature plant) and food seeds are alive, need air
1/1/2014 What is Germination? process where embryo changes to seedling (growing plant)
1/1/2014 What conditions are necessary for germination? 1) moisture 2) correct temperature 3) air 4) some seeds need light 5) some seeds need help (break seed coat [sunflower], remove a chemical from seed, heat, chill [winter wheat])
1/1/2014 What are Warm Season Crops? soil temperature must be 70 degrees F or more for germination (corn, rice, cotton, melons)
1/1/2014 What are Cool Season Crops? soil temp below 70 degrees F (wheat, barley, beets)
1/1/2014 How deep do seeds need to be planted? the size of the seed determines larger seed = deeper corn = 4" bluegrass = 1/4"
1/1/2014 Germination Process 1) seed absorbs water, swells 2) water activates enzymes which help digest stored food 3) root grows 4) shoot emerges (is now a seedling)
1/1/2014 What is vegetative growth? plant produces food for itself extra food is stored in roots, stems, etc.
1/1/2014 What is Tillering (Stooling)? when new stems are formed in grass plants
1/1/2014 What is Jointing? stems of grass plants elongate rapidly
1/1/2014 What is Respiration? process how plants get energy from its stored food
1/1/2014 How is food stored in plants? form of carbohydrates (sugars)
1/1/2014 How does respiration work? Food + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
1/1/2014 What factors can influence the rate of respiration? 1) high temps = high rate of respiration 2) high amounts of light = high rate 3) high amounts of water = high rate
1/1/2014 What is Photosynthesis? process of converting water and carbon dioxide into food (sugar) and oxygen in the presence of chlorophyll and light photosynthesis and respiration are opposite cycles
1/1/2014 What is Transpiration? process of returning water to the air (in the form of gas) 99% of water taken in by roots is transpired Wilt = plant transpires more than it takes in
1/1/2014 What are Nutrients? elements needed by plants to grow
1/1/2014 What are Macronutrients? needed in large amounts C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S) plants get C, H, O from air and water
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