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Solubility. SATURATED SOLUTION no more solute dissolves UNSATURATED SOLUTION more solute dissolves SUPERSATURATED SOLUTION becomes unstable, crystals.

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Presentation on theme: "Solubility. SATURATED SOLUTION no more solute dissolves UNSATURATED SOLUTION more solute dissolves SUPERSATURATED SOLUTION becomes unstable, crystals."— Presentation transcript:

1 Solubility

2 SATURATED SOLUTION no more solute dissolves UNSATURATED SOLUTION more solute dissolves SUPERSATURATED SOLUTION becomes unstable, crystals form increasing concentration

3 Solubility Table LeMay Jr, Beall, Robblee, Brower, Chemistry Connections to Our Changing World, 1996, page 517 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Solubility vs. Temperature for Solids Solubility (grams of solute/100 g H 2 O) KI KCl 20 10 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 110 120 130 140 100 NaNO 3 KNO 3 HClNH 4 Cl NH 3 NaCl KClO 3 SO 2 shows the dependence of solubility on temperature gases solids

4 Solubility Solubility maximum grams of solute that will dissolve in 100 g of solvent at a given temperature varies with temp based on a saturated solution

5 Solubility Solids are more soluble at... Solids are more soluble at... high temperatures. Gases are more soluble at... Gases are more soluble at... low temperatures & high pressures (Henrys Law). EX: nitrogen narcosis, the bends, soda

6 Temp. ( o C) Solubility (g/100 g H 2 O) KNO 3 (s) KCl (s) HCl (g) SOLUBILITY CURVE Solubility how much solute dissolves in a given amt. of solvent at a given temp. below unsaturated:solution could hold more solute; below line on saturated:solution has just right amt. of solute; on line supersaturated:solution has too much solute dissolved in it; above the line

7 ToTo Sol. ToTo Solids dissolved in liquids Gases dissolved in liquids As T o, solubility

8 per 100 g H 2 O Classify as unsaturated, saturated, or supersaturated. 80 g NaNO 3 @ 30 o Cunsaturated 45 g KCl @ 60 o Csaturated 50 g NH 3 @ 10 o Cunsaturated 70 g NH 4 Cl @ 70 o Csupersaturated So sat. pt. @ 40 o C for 500 g H 2 O = 5 x 66 g = 330 g 120 g < 330 gunsaturated saturation point @ 40 o C for 100 g H 2 O = 66 g KNO 3 Per 500 g H 2 O, 120 g KNO 3 @ 40 o C

9 (A) Per 100 g H 2 O, 100 g Unsaturated; all solute NaNO 3 @ 50 o C. dissolves; clear solution. (B) Cool solution (A) very Supersaturated; extra slowly to 10 o C. solute remains in solution; still clear. Describe each situation below. (C) Quench solution (A) in Saturated; extra solute an ice bath to 10 o C. (20 g) cant remain in solution, becomes visible.

10 Hotpack / Coldpack

11 http://www.unit5.org/christjs/tempT 27dFields-Jeff/Solutions1.htm Hot and Cold Packs Article KeysKeys Article "Hot and Cold Packs" ChemMatters Feb. 1987 QuestionsQuestions Article "Hot and Cold Packs" ChemMatters Feb. 1987 QuestionsQuestions

12 Solubility of Sodium Acetate Temperature ( o C) 0 255075100 Solubility(g/100 g H 2 O) 50 100 150 Supersaturated solution Unsaturated solution Saturated Charles H.Corwin, Introductory Chemistry 2005, page 378 A single crystal of sodium acetate, NaC 2 H 3 O 2, is dropped into a supersaturated solution The small crystal causes extensive crystallization, and eventually the solute forms a solid mass of NaC 2 H 3 O 2. video clip

13 Solubility Equilibrium

14 Vitamins Multi Vitamin –Provides many essential vitamins –Expensive urine Water Soluble –Vitamin C –Must be replenished regularly Fat Soluble –Can overdose –Vitamin A –Can be ingested periodically, stored in body fat

15 http://www.unit5.org/christjs/tempT 27dFields-Jeff/Solutions1.htm Steroids KeysKeys Bob Hazelton Article - Steroids Bob Hazelton ArticleBob Hazelton Article - Steroids

16 Reverse Osmosis

17 Kelter, Carr, Scott, Chemistry A Wolrd of Choices 1999, page 267

18 Net flow of solvent Net Solvent Flow Dilute solution Concentrated solution Solute particleSolvent particle Ralph A. Burns, Fundamentals of Chemistry 1999, page 430 semipermeable membrane Net flow of solvent

19 Gas, Liquid, and Solid Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 441

20 Classes of Reactions Chemical reactions Precipitation reactions Acid-Base Reactions Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Combustion Reactions Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 240

21 Summary of Classes of Reactions Chemical reactions Precipitation reactions Acid-Base Reactions Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Combustion Reactions Decomposition reactions (Products are elements.) Synthesis reactions (Reactants are elements.) Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 242

22 Dissociate in Water

23 Hydrogen Bonding Intermolecular forces of attraction between molecules Bonds exist within molecules Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 442

24 K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ NO 3 - AgCl precipitate K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ NO 3 - AgCl precipitate

25 Dissolving of NaCl Timberlake, Chemistry 7 th Edition, page 287

26 Solutions

27 http://www.unit5.org/christjs/tempT 27dFields-Jeff/Solutions1.htm Liquid Nitrogen Demonstrations KeysKeys Liquid Nitrogen

28 http://www.unit5.org/christjs/tempT 27dFields-Jeff/Solutions1.htm Titration of Vitamin C with Iodine KeysKeys

29 Definitions Solute Solute - KMnO 4 Solvent Solvent - H 2 O

30 Solvation Dissociation Dissociation separation of an ionic solid into aqueous ions NaCl(s) Na + (aq) + Cl – (aq)

31 Solvation Ionization Ionization breaking apart of some polar molecules into aqueous ions HNO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + NO 3 – (aq)

32 Solvation Molecular Solvation Molecular Solvation molecules stay intact C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) C 6 H 12 O 6 (aq)


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