Presentation on theme: "Copyright D Gurney 2006 Critical Thinking An Introduction to Situation Awareness and Decision Making This presentation provides an overview of how to improve."— Presentation transcript:
Copyright D Gurney 2006 Critical Thinking An Introduction to Situation Awareness and Decision Making This presentation provides an overview of how to improve situation awareness. It is intended to enhance the reader's understanding, but it shall not supersede the applicable regulations or airline's operational documentation; should there be any discrepancy appear between this presentation and the airline’s AFM / (M)MEL / FCOM / QRH / FCTM, the latter shall prevail at all times. Thinking about thinking
Copyright D Gurney 2006 Introduction This self-study guide provides advice on how to improve your thinking and introduces the associated aspects of situation awareness and decision making. These activities are essential processes in threat and error management, which must be used in daily operations. Thinking is the core skill in these activities; critical thinking involves controlling your thinking:- thinking about the quality of your thinking. The guide is in five sections: 1.Threat and Error Management 2.Situation Awareness 3.Decision Making 4.Critical Thinking 5.Situation Awareness and Decision Making Speakers notes provide additional information, they can be selected by clicking the right mouse button in Slideshow View, select Screen, select Speakers notes. This presentation can be printed in the notes format to provide a personal reference document. Everyone thinks; it is our nature to do so. But much of our thinking, left to itself, is biased, distorted, partial, uninformed or down-right prejudiced. Yet the quality of our life and that of what we produce, make, or build depends precisely on the quality of our thought. Poor thinking is costly, both in money and in quality of life. Excellence in thought, however, must be systematically and continuously cultivated.
Critical Thinking - Situation Awareness and Decision Making Copyright D Gurney 2006 All flight and ground operations Threat and Error Management Threat and Error Management (TEM) is a major safety process in aviation. TEM consists of detecting, avoiding or trapping threats and errors that challenge the safety of flight operations. Where threats and errors are not contained the resulting conditions must be managed and their adverse effects reduced. Plane Path People ThreatsErrorsUndesired States Detect Avoid / Trap Mitigate Resist Resolve Recover Fly the aircraft, Navigate, Communicate, Manage Decision Making Situation Awareness
Critical Thinking - Situation Awareness and Decision Making Copyright D Gurney 2006 Situation Awareness Situation Awareness is having an accurate understanding of your surroundings, where you are, what happened, what is happening, what is changing, why, and what could happen. Good situation awareness requires: 1. Gathering data (sensing, perception), seeking cues in the environment 2. Assembling information to give understanding (comprehension) 3. and then thinking ahead (projection) Thinking about situation awareness involves: – directing your attention to seek data; scanning a range of sources – evaluating information without bias, for accuracy and relevance – understanding, using your knowledge and previous experiences – comparing and checking, visualising future events - ‘what if’ – planning ahead, considering possible outcomes People Path Plane FutureNow Situation SCAN EVALUATE ANTICIPATE CONSIDER PlanningAhead Gathering data Understanding
Critical Thinking - Situation Awareness and Decision Making Copyright D Gurney 2006 Decision Making Decision making is about assessment and choosing a course of action Decision making requires an understanding of the situation and controlled thinking The situation determines the urgency of the decision, the risks, and actions Controlled thinking: – Reduces risk – Moderates behaviour – Manages time constraints – Uses knowledge; seeks options – Judges relevance and the quality of the choice – Prepares for action, evaluates the outcome of planned action O O D A Observe Orient Deduce Act D E C I D E Detect a change Estimate significance Choose a safe outcome Identify possible actions Do take action Evaluate the result 5 D Detect Determine Decide Do DisciplineGRADE Gather Information Review Information Analyse Alternatives Decide Evaluate Outcome of Action T H I N K Expertise involves knowing how to decide, grade, and think – how to use all of the elements
Critical Thinking - Situation Awareness and Decision Making Copyright D Gurney 2006 Thinking inside the ‘box’ before you think outside of the box Critical Thinking Critical thinking provides the mental control and discipline required for situation assessment and decision making. It involves several skills; these can be learnt, practiced, and improved. Control your mind by: – Seeking and understanding information, facts, and data – Effective planning, briefing, and communication – Increasing knowledge; gaining experience – Learning within a situation (context) Maintain discipline by: – Being aware of how you think; hazardous attitudes – Evaluating your actions; having self regulation – Being aware of all available resources – Being sensitive to feedback Critical Thinking is the skill of thinking about your thinking “Are you in charge of your thinking, or is your thinking in charge of you?“
Critical Thinking - Situation Awareness and Decision Making Copyright D Gurney 2006 Critical Thinking - Self awareness Self awareness - self questioning, self monitoring Am I biased in my thinking Have I made a plan for what I want to do Are my ideas or knowledge on this issue correct Am I aware of my thinking; what am I trying to do Am I using all of the resources for what I want to do Am I evaluating my thinking; what I would do differently next time Am I aware of how well I am doing; do I need to change my actions or intentions Monitoring Monitoring is checking or testing the accuracy of a situation on a regular basis. It is keeping a close watch over parameters and supervising the outcome of planned action. It is checking for threats and errors in our thinking
Critical Thinking - Situation Awareness and Decision Making Copyright D Gurney 2006 Critical Thinking - Knowledge Improving your thinking with Knowledge Knowledge of Yourself – A Commitment to safety, not following feelings or preference – Positive Attitudes, persistence, resourcefulness, learning from failure – Attention to detail and seeing the big picture; determining relevance, assessing risk Knowledge about the Thinking Processes – Knowing the facts necessary to do a task by seeking information – Knowing how to do a task, how to scan, understand, and think ahead – Knowing why certain strategies work, when to use them, why one is better than another Knowledge to control your Thinking – Self evaluation, assessing current technical knowledge, setting objectives, selecting resources – Self regulation, checking progress; reviewing choices, procedures, and objectives – Planning, choosing and evaluating a path to the objective Planning is the process of thinking about what you will do in the event of something happening or not happening
Critical Thinking - Situation Awareness and Decision Making Copyright D Gurney 2006 Critical Thinking - Behaviour Improving your thinking by changing behaviour Changing your thinking habit requires effort; clear thinking is an essential part of airmanship, which has to be developed throughout your career. Basic training only provides those skills necessary to be safe. Safe: Continuation training and experience enables an effective operation. Effective: More technical knowledge, practiced skills, and more experience leads to an efficient operation. Efficient: Skilful command in controlling the aircraft and team leadership adds experience and moves towards an expert operation. Expert: An operator who has gained and who maintains a high standard of technical and non-technical skills as a result of great personal effort. Expert thinkers Focus on relevant issues Identify essential information Consider information on merit Test and check the basis of their awareness and decisions
Critical Thinking - Situation Awareness and Decision Making Copyright D Gurney 2006 Critical Thinking - Personal Briefing Improving your thinking - Briefing Before flight, self briefing reinforces memory cues and knowledge, these aid the recall of information for use in situation assessment and decision making. Know on what, who, where, and when to prioritise your attention Always brief routine operations – repetition aids memory Structure the briefing along the intended flight path Visualise your actions (plane, path, people) Consider the significant threats Recall lessons from training Refresh SOPs Questions Do not rush: Your thoughts control your actions Your thoughts control your actions
Critical Thinking - Situation Awareness and Decision Making Copyright D Gurney 2006 Critical Thinking - Personal Debrief Improving your thinking - Debrief After each flight consider the following points; Plus, Minus, Interesting (PMI) Plus:- What was good What went according to plan Minus:- What was not so good, and why What didn’t you know, find the answer before the next flight Interesting:- Have you changed the way in which you see things; threats, risks, people or procedures What did you learn, why, and where did the information come from Will you share this with others, if not why not Anything for a safety event report (ASR) Any issues for confidential reporting Did you experience:- High workload Poor attitudes Biased opinions Mismanaged time Unanswered questions PlusMinusInterestingDebriefing
Critical Thinking - Situation Awareness and Decision Making Copyright D Gurney 2006 All flight and ground operations Thinking about Situation Awareness and Decision Making Situation Awareness and Decision Making depend on our ability to think. Thinking enables humans to be very successful, but this ability also enables errors, which if not controlled increase the risks in our daily activities. Action Monitor Feedback Review Response Decision Making SituationAwareness Working memory Long term memory - knowledge, bias, beliefs Pattern recognition Comparison Choice Selection Senses: See Hear Touch Smell Taste Value your ability, use it wisely ThreatsErrors Undesired States
Critical Thinking - Situation Awareness and Decision Making Copyright D Gurney 2006 Critical Thinking - for Situation Awareness Critical thinking for Situation Awareness – seeking information Essential components: – Accuracy; is the information true – Clarity; is the information understood – Precision; seek detail to understand the situation – Relevance; is the information connected to the situation – Depth; does the information address the complexity of the situation – Breadth; are there other points of view or other ways to consider this situation – Logic; does your understanding of the situation make sense Whenever you don’t understand something, ask yourself a question for clarification ?
Critical Thinking - Situation Awareness and Decision Making Copyright D Gurney 2006 Critical Thinking - for Decision Making Critical thinking for Decision Making – the choice of action Essential components: – What are the immediate risks – What is the time available for the decision – State the objective of the decision to be made – Identify information to be used in making the decision – Gather the evidence and information required to make a decision – Make a decision based on criteria (a safe outcome), information, and risks – Ask, what does the evidence and information mean considering the objective? Routine Trained For Unusual Novel Situation Knowledge Skill Rules Needs Uses Requires Almost automatic action; actions have been thought-through during training Think about which action applies to the situation, compare with training Think about the situation, compare with standard actions, training, and previous experience
Critical Thinking - Situation Awareness and Decision Making Copyright D Gurney 2006 Critical Thinking Critical thinking is at the centre of all safety processes and human activity. Threat and Error Threat and Error Management Management Decision Decision Making MakingSituationAwareness Critical Thinking
Information To print the Presenter Notes: In Windows Explorer, change the presentation file extension from.pps to.ppt Open the new ppt file and select File, Print, print what Notes Pages. If the presentation seems to be running slowly, try one or more of the following: Reduce the resolution for the slide show presentation display. On the Slide Show menu, click Set Up Show. Under Performance, in the Slide show resolution box, click 640x480 in the list. Note. Changing resolution may cause the slide image to be slightly shifted. If this happens, either choose a different resolution or click Use Current Resolution. Set the colour depth to 16 bit for optimal performance. For information on changing the number of colours displayed on your monitor, see Microsoft Windows Help. On the Slide Show menu, click Set Up Show. Under Performance, select the Use hardware graphics acceleration check box. If your computer has this capability, Office PowerPoint 2003 will attempt to use it. Note. If you notice performance problems with the slide show after you change this setting, turn off the option. Your computer may not have this capability. Animations (PowerPoint Ver 2003 required). Download reader from Animation performance will be much better with a video card that has Microsoft Direct 3D. (Direct 3D is a component of Microsoft DirectX, which is a set of advanced multimedia system services built into the Microsoft Windows operating system.) Many video card manufacturers take advantage of this technology; check with the documentation you received with your computer to find out if Direct 3D is supported.