Presentation on theme: "Helping College Students Develop Critical Thinking Skills"— Presentation transcript:
1Helping College Students Develop Critical Thinking Skills Angela Provitera McGlynn
2Biography Professor Emeritus of Psychology, MCCC Author of several books and numerous articles; regular contributor to The Hispanic Outlook in Higher EducationLatest books: see slide towards end of presentationNational Consultant on Teaching and Learning Issues; Trainer for Transformation Associates, LLCWeb site:address:
4Objectives Participants will learn: What critical thinking, also known as “deep” thinking, entailsHow to develop discussion questions that promote critical thinkingHow to use specific teaching strategies that promote critical thinking
5QuestionWhat is the one thing you hope to learn from today’s webinar?
6What is Critical Thinking? “Critical thinking describes the process we use to uncover and check our assumptions.”Stephen Brookfield, (2006, Developing Critical Thinkers, p. 11)
7What is Critical Thinking? Critical thinking is, in short, self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking. It requires rigorous standards of excellence and mindful command of their use. It entails effective communication and problem solving abilities and a commitment to overcome our native egocentrism and sociocentrism.Paul and Elder, (2006, p.4)
8What is Critical Thinking? Critical thinking is the art of analyzing and evaluating thinking with a view to improving it(Paul and Elder, 2006, p.4)
9What is Critical Thinking? The “critical” thinkerRaises vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and preciselyGathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it effectivelyComes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them against relevant criteria and standards
10What is Critical Thinking? The critical thinker…Thinks open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and assessing, as need be, their assumptions, implications, and practical consequences, andCommunicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems
11What is Critical Thinking? There are four common threads that appear in most descriptions of critical thinking:Reasoned ThinkingProblem SolvingFair-minded EvaluationInformed JudgmentsNancy Halstead and Janice Tomson, (ETS Project, June 2006)
12What is Critical Thinking? It is “deeper” than memorization and recall of factual information. When students think critically, they think deeply; they not only know the facts, but they take the additional step of going beyond the facts to do something with them.Critical thinking involves reflecting on the information received, moving away from “surface” memorization and toward deeper levels of learning.(Joe Cuseo, Questions that Promote Deeper Thinking, Oncoursenewsetter)
13What is Critical Thinking? It Involves a shift away from viewing learning as the reception of information from teacher or text (in pre-packaged form) to viewing learning as an elaboration and transformation of received information into a different form by the learner.(Joe Cuseo, Questions that Promote Deeper Thinking, Oncoursenewsetter)
14What is Critical Thinking? This broad definition of critical thinking does not equate critical thinking with the cognitive process of evaluation or critique; instead, it incorporates evaluation as one specific form or type of critical thinking. This is an important distinction, not only for the purpose of definitional clarity, but also for the practical purpose of combating the prevalent student misconception that critical thinking means being “being critical.”(Joe Cuseo, Questions that Promote Deeper Thinking, Oncoursenewsetter)
15Developing Discussion Questions to Promote Critical Thinking a) “What are the implications of ___?”(b) “Why is ___ important?”(c) “What is another way to look at ___?” Questions that ask students to reflect on their own thinking processes and to identify what particular form of critical thinking they are using – metacognition(Joe Cuseo, Questions that Promote Deeper Thinking, Oncoursenewsetter)
16Developing Discussion Questions to Promote Critical Thinking “After students have communicated their ideas, either orally via group discussions or in writing via minute papers, I periodically ask them to reflect on what type of critical thinking my question was designed to promote and whether they think they demonstrated that critical thinking in their response. I typically ask them to record their personal reflections in writing, either working individually or in pairs; in the latter case, their task is to listen and record the reflections shared by their partner.”(Joe Cuseo, Questions that Promote Deeper Thinking, Oncoursenewsetter)
17Developing Discussion Questions to Promote Critical Thinking …One distinguishing characteristic of high-achieving college students is that they tend to reflect on their thought processes during learning and are aware of the cognitive strategies they use (Weinstein & Underwood, 1985).(Joe Cuseo, Questions that Promote Deeper Thinking, Oncoursenewsetter)
19Developing Discussion Questions to Promote Critical Thinking Additional research indicates that students can learn to engage in such “meta-cognition” (thinking about thinking) if they are regularly asked self-assessment questions, which require reflection on their own thought processes. When students learn to routinely ask themselves these questions, the depth and quality of their thinking are enhanced (Resnick, 1986)(Joe Cuseo, Questions that Promote Deeper Thinking, Oncoursenewsetter)
20Developing Discussion Questions to Promote Critical Thinking Higher-level thinking questionsOpen-ended questions aimed at provoking divergent thinkingGo beyond knowledge-level recallShould promote evaluation and synthesis of facts and conceptsShould start or end with words or phrases such as “explain,” “compare,” “why”(Walker, S.E. Active Learning Promotes Critical Thinking)
21ActivityPlease develop one “higher-level” thinking question in your disciplinePlease share with a partner
22Developing Discussion Questions to Promote Critical Thinking Socratic questioningFocuses on clarificationProbes or explores the meaning, justification, or logical strength of a claim or positionHow is X similar or different from Y?Debate format gets students to see multiple sides of an issue(Walker, S.E. Active Learning Promotes Critical Thinking)
23Teaching Strategies that Promote Critical Thinking Ask students to summarize in writing and orally what the teacher or another student has saidAsk students to elaborate on what has been said either by giving examples and using their own wordsAsk students to make connections between related conceptsPROMOTING ACTIVE LEARNING (How to Improve Student Learning: A Miniature Guide for those who teach) by Dr. Richard Paul and Dr. Linda Elder
24Teaching Strategies that Promote Critical Thinking Ask students to state the most important concept of the class thus far (Angelo and Cross,1993)Ask students to state the most confusing point of the class thus far (Angelo and Cross, 1993)Ask students to discuss any of the above with a partner for 30 seconds, and then ask them to participate in a class discussion
25Teaching Strategies that Promote Critical Thinking Ask students to deliberate on real-life situations such as mock jury trialsAsk students to write and/or present persuasive arguments that are data and evidence basedGet students to debate content-related material(Halstead and Tomson, 2006)
26Teaching Strategies that Promote Critical Thinking Get students to keep journals on their reactions and evaluations of what they read for classCreate problem-solving exercises and get students to work collaborativelyGive students essays to write that ask them to interpret, synthesize, analyze, and evaluate material(Halstead and Tomson, 2006)
27Teaching Strategies that Promote Critical Thinking JiTT Just-in-Time Teachingdeveloped at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) and the U.S. Air Force Academy in 1996 and has since spread rapidly across disciplines, various types of institutions, and course levels
28Teaching Strategies that Promote Critical Thinking According to Gregor Novak, Professor Emeritus at IUPUI, who spearheaded the development of JiTT and is now co-director of the JiTTDL (digital library) project, the heart of the JiTT approach is the “feedback loop” formed by the students’ preparation outside of class that affects what happens during the subsequent in-class session.
29JiTT Just-in-Time Teaching JiTT incorporates web-based materials with classroom instruction to maximize the in-class and outside-of-class learning environmentsJiTT engages students in the course material by posting weekly questions for students that require outside of class reading and responses.
30JiTT Just-in-Time Teaching The instructor gathers the responses prior to the class lecture/discussion period “Just-in-time” to use them to clarify any misconceptions about course content and then guides students through follow-up in-class activitiesWhat happens in class is determined by an analysis of students’ prior responses
31JiTT Just-in-Time Teaching JiTT enhances student involvement because students come to class having recently completed their web assignment; therefore, they come ready to participate. Students typically also feel empowered since they know that what will happen in class depends in part on what they and their classmates have formulated.
33JiTT Just-in-Time Teaching Highly flexible, JiTT can be adapted to different disciplines, different courses and levels, varying class schedules, and different instructor preferences. The basic component is always the feedback loop between what students do during class and what they do prior to and after class.
34Adding Tools to Your Trade/Art What can you do that you haven’t tried before to help your students develop critical thinking skills?
35Bloom’s Taxonomy and Revision AppendixBloom’s Taxonomy and Revision
36Bloom’s Taxonomy Bloom, B.S. (1956) In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning.During the 1990's a new group of cognitive psychologists, lead by Lorin Anderson (a former student of Bloom's), updated the taxonomy reflecting relevance to 21st century work(Pohl, M. Website:
37Bloom’s Taxonomy Bloom, B.S. (1956) Bloom’s Taxonomy used the categories knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Anderson and her colleagues changed the nouns to verbs and altered the highest levels of thinking – remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating(Pohl, M. Website:
38Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised Version (Anderson, L.W. et al., 2000) Remembering: can the student recall or remember the information?Understanding: can the student explain ideas or concepts?Applying: can the student use the information in a new way?Analysing: can the student distinguish between the different parts?Evaluating: can the student justify a stand or decision?Creating: can the student create new product or point of view?define, duplicate, list, memorize, recall, repeat, stateclassify, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate, recognize, report, select, translate, paraphrasechoose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, schedule, sketch, solve, use, writeappraise, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, examine, experiment, question, testappraise, argue, defend, judge, support, evaluateassemble, construct create, design, develop, formulate, write
39Bloom’s Taxonomy Questions Bloom, B.S. (1956) KnowledgeWho, what, when, where, how ...?DescribeComprehensionRetell...ApplicationHow is...an example of...?How is...related to...?Why is...significant?
40Bloom’s Taxonomy Questions Bloom, B.S. (1956) AnalysisWhat are the parts or features of...?Classify...according to...Outline/diagram...How does...compare/contrast with...?What evidence can you list for...?
41Bloom’s Taxonomy Questions Bloom, B.S. (1956) SynthesisWhat would you predict/infer from...?What ideas can you add to...?How would you create/design a new...?What might happen if you combined...?What solutions would you suggest for...?
42Bloom’s Taxonomy Questions Bloom, B.S. (1956) EvaluationDo you agree...?What do you think about...?What is the most important...?Place the following in order of priority...How would you decide about...?What criteria would you use to assess...?
43Angela’s most recent books by Atwood Publishing, 888 242-7101, www Angela’s most recent books by Atwood Publishing, ,
44ReferencesAnderson, L.W., Krathwohl, D.R., Airasian, P.W., & Cruikshank, K.A. (2000). A Taxonomy of Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Allyn & Bacon, 2nd. Edition.Angelo,T.A. and Cross, K.P. (1993). Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers, Second Ed., San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
45ReferencesAstin, A.W. (1993) What Matters in College? Four Critical Years Revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-BassBonwell C.C. and Eison, J.A. (1991). Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 1. Washington DC: George Washington Univesity School of Education and Human Development
46ReferencesBloom, B.S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook 1:The Cognitive Domain, NY: David McKay Co., Inc.The Case for Learner-Centered Education, ON Course Newsletter,
47ReferencesBrookfield, S. (2006). Developing Critical Thinkers, from “Workshop Materials, PowerPoints, Book Extracts,”Brufee, K.A. (1993). Collaborative learning: Higher education, interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press
48ReferencesCuseo, J. (1996). Cooperative Learning: Pedagogy for Addressing Contemporary Challenges and Critical Issues in Higher Education. Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press.Cuseo, J. Oncoursenewsletter,Halstead, N. and Tomson, J. Unpublished, Critical Thinking, ETS Project June 2006.
49ReferencesNovak, Patterson, Gavin, & Christian’s Just-In-Time Teaching: Blending Active Learning with Web Technology,(1999), Benjamin Cummings PublishersPaul, R. and Elder, L. ((2006). The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking: Concepts and Tools, The Foundation for CriticalThinking,
50ReferencesPaul, R., and Elder, D. (2002). How to Improve Student Learning: A Miniature Guide for those who teach: 30 Practical Ideas. The Foundation for Critical Thinking,Pohl, M. Website re Bloom’s Taxonomy,
51ReferencesResnick, L. B. (1986). Education and learning to think. Special Report. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.Walker, S. E., Active Learning Strategies to Promote Critical Thinking, 2003 Jul–Sep, Journal of Athletic Training. 38(3): 263–267.
52ReferencesWeinstein, C. E., & Underwood, V. L. (1985). Learning strategies: The how of learning. In J. W. Segal, S. F. Chapman, & R. Glaser (Eds.), Thinking and learning skills (pp ). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.