Presentation on theme: "Resident Educator Development The RED Program A Residents-as-Teachers Curriculum Developed by Heather A. Thompson, MD."— Presentation transcript:
Resident Educator Development The RED Program A Residents-as-Teachers Curriculum Developed by Heather A. Thompson, MD
The RED Program Team Leadership How to Teach at the Bedside The Microskills Model: Teaching during Oral Presentations How to Teach EBM The Ten Minute Talk Effective Feedback Professionalism Patient Safety and Medical Errors
Teaching at the Bedside Resident Educator Development (RED) Program
Medicine is learned by the bedside and not in the classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come form words heard in the lecture room or read from a book. See, then reason and compare and control, but see first. Sir William Osler
An exercise Recall a bedside teaching session that was effective. What made it go well? Recall a bedside teaching session were learning was minimal. What made this session ineffective?
Reinforces skills of medical interviewing, communication, and patient education. Opportunity to observe, teach, and practice physical exam skills. Contributes to a greater understanding of patients needs.
Why Teach at the Bedside? Sets the tone for professional interaction between patients and teams in a teaching hospital. Often the first encounter with real live patients for the medical students. You need to see and examine your patients every day; may as well make the most of the encounter!
Is there data? Survey of Australian Medical Students and Residents: --99% agreed that bedside teaching was valuable and effective for teaching PE skills --HOWEVER only 53% stated they had enough bedside teaching to improve their PE skills --Medical Education Sept 1997 31(5): 341-346
Is there data? Actual time spent at the bedside is decreasing: 15-25% of total time on wards Attendings at the bedside a frequency of once every 2-4 days Annals Int Med 1997 126 (7): 217-220 JAMA 1986 256:725-739 J Med Educ. 1982 57:854-859
Is there data? Survey in JGIM: --88% of attendings prefer that cases NOT be presented at bedside Survey out of MCOW: --only 2% of housestaff and 4% of students feel comfortable presenting at bedside Why is this happening?
Barriers Focus groups at Boston University have identified barriers to bedside teaching, broken down by category. Academic Medicine April 2003 78(4):384-390
Teacher-Related Inexperience with bedside teaching Lack of confidence in physical exam skills Performance pressure
Teacher-Related Lack of control over situation Difficulty in engaging all team members
Teaching Climate-Related Time constraints: too many patients to see on morning rounds, limited time for H&P Lack of training in bedside skills Lack of teaching role models
Systems-Related Too many interruptions (phone calls, visitors, lab draw, trip to radiology) Shortened patient stays: average length of stay is 3 days Technology: overabundance of data to discuss (scans, lab tests) rather than the patients symptoms and physical exam signs
Patient-related (perception vs. reality?) Patients not comfortable being discussed by a large team Patient too medically unstable to cooperate with history or exam Absent patient Patient misinterpretation of discussion Uncooperative/angry patient
Miscellaneous Learner fatigue, boredom Fear of being called upon Privacy Issues (HIPPA) Physical environment: --large crowd in a small room --no blackboard/Xray view box --inability to refer to textbook, computer resources, lit seach
General Strategies Improve Your PE skills --Working up patients --Program Workshops --Physical Diagnosis Textbooks, CDs --Professors Rounds/Chief Resident Rounds --Mini-CEX: an observed physical --Participating in an OSCE
General Strategies Diminish the aura of bedside teaching You may not be an expert but you still know a fair amount…even as a junior clinician. You cant get everything, but you can still get more than you did as a third year student. --Boston U Focus Group Participant You dont need gray hair (or lack of hair) to teach at the bedside. --Former U Chief Resident
General Strategies Use laptops or PDAs at the bedside --Lit searches/EBM --UptoDate --Info Retriever --Clinical prediction rules, likelihood ratios, pos predictive values
General Strategies Realize that most patients enjoy bedside teaching rounds --77% found the experience enjoyable --68% found that it increased their understanding of their medical problems (NEJM 1997 336:1150-5)
Before Encounter: Prepare Formulate specific goals and objectives for each session. Read up on the topic/technique. Choose the patient wisely. Orient the patient to the purpose and format.
Before Encounter: Teaching considerations Discuss what one might expect to find on PE in certain disease states. Discuss how to elicit these PE findings. (demonstrate on a volunteer) Discuss sensitivity/specificity, PPV/NPV
During the Encounter: Patient considerations Begin and end with the patient. Opening lines: Tell us what brought you in the hospital. Can you describe how you are feeling today? Close with: What questions do you have for us? What is it that you want most from the doctors caring for you?
During the Encounter: Patient considerations Try to have as many people SEATED in the room as possible during the initial interview. Explain to the patient during rounds when you are going to use medical jargon, or avoid shoptalk altogether.
During the Encounter: Patient considerations Be careful about listing a differential diagnosis, such as cancer. Avoid asking a question of the group that they might not be able to answer: undermines patient confidence.
During the Encounter: Teaching considerations In a larger group: shift from open- ended (listen to the heart and tell me what you hear) to directive (listen with the diaphragm at the LUSB where you will hear a blowing diastolic murmur consistent with aortic insufficiency)
During the Encounter: Teaching considerations Goal is to gain some experience with a certain PE finding as opposed to evaluating learners technique Establish a comfortable environment (its OK to say I dont know or I dont hear it)
After: Debrief The group should leave the bedside, and observations are made as to what was seen. Learners should have time to ask questions, and give and receive feedback.
Admitting a Patient One on one, with your intern or student --helps to be the Fly on the Wall (observer) or the Midwife (lets the process happen, intervenes at critical moments) --Again, review beforehand what PE findings you might expect --This is the opportunity to assess learners specific skills or technique, give feedback
Admitting a Patient With your student --Often, they want to know how much of the PE needs to be done --Remember, in 2 nd year medical school an exhaustive 2+ hour exam is taught --Students need to learn how to tailor the exam to the presenting problem --They also want to know how to remember all the elements of the admit H&P
Admitting a Patient Medical Student Strategies --Refer to templates. --Can teach the top down or head to toe approach by body areas: general appearance, HEENT, Heart, Lungs, Abd, Extremities (peripheral pulses/edema/joints), Skin, Neuro. --Expand on any one area based on symptoms or abnormal findings. (FYI: 8+ covers billing, too)
Daily Work Rounds Again, always consider the patient --Sitting down patient overestimates time spent with MDs Opportunity to model communication skills/bedside manner Review new or fixed findings with other team members Can review or demonstrate a specific technique
Video Exercise View the bedside teaching rounds represented in this video vignette Discuss what went well, and what could be improved upon
In summary Go to the bedside with a specific purpose Teach PE skills when the opportunity arises Model communication skills Maintain a comfortable and positive environment for the patient, learners, and you
In summary There should be no teaching without a patient for a text, and the best is that taught by the patient himself. --Sir William Osler