7Factors Influencing Sense of Self Hmmm…what factors influence how we feel about ourselves?
8Developmental Progression Childhooddescribe physical, concrete characteristicspositive sense of self, high self-efficacyEarly adolescencedescribe abstract traitsself-esteem often dropsimaginary audience, personal fableLate adolescencemultifaceted sense of self, identity
14Larger Social Groups Cliques Crowds Gangs exclusive in nature 3 to 10 membersCrowdslarger than cliques, not as exclusiveshare activities, attitudes, or backgroundcan take form of subcultureGangscohesive groupcharacterized by initiation rites, distinctive clothing, & other markers
15Romantic Relationships Usually evolve from crush to real loveOften based on attractiveness, social statusBenefits?May be confusing in adolescence
16Popularity & Social Isolation Popular studentsRejected studentsControversial studentsNeglected students
17Social CognitionAbility to think about how other people are likely to think, act, and react
18Development of Theory of Mind ChildhoodEarly adolescenceLate adolescence
19Aggression Actions intended to harm others physical vs. relationalproactive vs. reactiveFactors influencing aggression?
20Technology & Peer Relationships Helpful or harmful….you be the judge
22Moral & Prosocial Development Prosocial behaviorMorality
23Kohlberg’s Theory Children construct standards for right & wrong Moral dilemma: In Europe, a woman was near death from a rare form of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2,000, ten times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about half of what the drug cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said no. So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife. (Kohlberg, 1984, p. 186)
24Level & Stage Age Range Examples PreconventionalStage 1: Avoidance of punishmentStage 2: Exchange of favorsPreschool – elementary; some junior high; few high school studentsStage 1: “I would cheat if I knew I wouldn’t get caught.”Stage 2: “I’ll let you copy mine if you do my homework.”ConventionalStage 3: Good childStage 4: Law and orderFew older elementary children, some junior high, many high school students(Stage 4 does not typically appear until high school)Stage 3: “I’m not going to tell because I want her to like me.”Stage 4: “You can’t do that because the teacher said no.”PostconventionalStage 5: Social contractStage 6: Universal ethical principleRarely seen before college (stage 6 is extremely rare)Stage 5: “In this case, the rule may be wrong.”Stage 6: “You shouldn’t lie because it violates the Golden Rule.”
25Weaknesses in Kohlberg’s Theory Moral issues (e.g., causing harm) conflated with social conventions (e.g., having rules to help society run smoothly)Helping and showing compassion for others overlookedUnderestimation of young children’s abilitiesImportance of situational factors overlooked
26Factors Affecting Moral Development Level of moral reasoningGuilt, perspective taking, empathyPersonal motivesSelf-perceptions
27Diversity in Development Gendergirls more likely to experience guilt, shame, empathycare vs. justice orientation (C. Gilligan)Culture & ethnicity
29Navigating Different Cultures Cultural mismatchdifferent cultural norms at home and schoolWhy would this be a problem?
30Examples of Diversity Language and dialect Waiting vs. interrupting When to talk, when to be quietEmotional expressivenessEye contactPersonal spaceResponding to questionsWaiting vs. interruptingPrivate vs. public performanceViews about teasingCooperation vs. competitionFamily relationships & expectationsConceptions of timeWorldviews
31Culturally Inclusive Classrooms Identify your cultural lens and biases.Learn about students’ backgrounds.Incorporate perspectives & traditions of many cultures into the curriculum.Adapt instructional strategies to students’ preferred ways of learning & behaving.Work to break down stereotypes of particular ethnic groups.Bring cultural diversity to culturally homogeneous classrooms.Foster democratic ideals, & empower students to bring about meaningful change.
33Cognitive & Academic Abilities Differences are small; gap is decreasingSimilar on tests of general intelligenceGirlsBetter at….BoysBetter at…
34Motivation in Academic Activities Girlsmore engagedmore motivated to do well in school & go to collegeBoysmore willing to take academic challenges and risksless concerned about failureGirls’ high achievement motivation makes them more likely to choose tasks that ensure success….sometimes this means they choose less challenging fields to study.Boys tend to overestimate their athletic ability and their physical appearance, whereas girls are particularly hard on themselves in regard to their physical appearance.
35Sense of Self Self-worth similar until puberty consistent with stereotypesboys overestimate abilities; girls underestimateGirls’ high achievement motivation makes them more likely to choose tasks that ensure success….sometimes this means they choose less challenging fields to study.Boys tend to overestimate their athletic ability and their physical appearance, whereas girls are particularly hard on themselves in regard to their physical appearance.
36Interpersonal Behaviors GirlsBoysAs boys get older, they want to assert their heterosexuality (“can’t sit by you at the theater”)Girls excel academically in same sex classrooms and in environments that encourage cooperation.
37Classroom Behavior Boys Girls more likely to misbehave more participatoryGirlsless likely to volunteer answersmore likely to lead in same-sex groups than in mixed groupsGirls report being worried that they will appear too smart OR are afraid to fail and give wrong answer.
42Defining “At-Risk”At-risk student: High probability of failing to acquire minimal academic skills necessary for success.
43Characteristics of Students At Risk History of academic failureEmotional and behavioral problemsLack of psychological attachment to schoolIncreasing lack of involvement with school
44Why Students Drop Out Little family or peer encouragement Extenuating life circumstancesDissatisfaction with schoolPessimism about abilityLack of teacher support
45Supporting Students at Risk Identify at-risk students as early as possibleCreate a warm, supportive atmosphereMake long-term, systematic efforts to engage students in the academic curriculumEncourage and facilitate identification with school