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KIOST – AMETEC Workshop Geoje, Korea 12 – 21 June 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "KIOST – AMETEC Workshop Geoje, Korea 12 – 21 June 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 KIOST – AMETEC Workshop Geoje, Korea 12 – 21 June 2013

2 INTRODUCTION My report will include: 1.Introduction to India, IMF, and country coordinator 2. Analysis of marine debris problem in India 3. Govt. of India policy on marine debris 4. Results of 2012 International Coastal Cleanup in India 5. Other programs on marine debris (monitoring, educa tion, etc.) and others.

3 Introduction to India

4 INDIA - Geography India has a land area of 3,166,414 km 2 (1,222,559 sq mi) with a coastline of 7,517 km (4,671 mi). Coasts The Eastern Coastal Plain is a wide stretch of land from Tamil Nadu in the south to West Bengal in the east. The Western Coastal plain extends from Gujarat in the north and extends through Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, and Kerala. Numerous rivers and backwaters inundate the region. Mostly originating in the Western Ghats, the rivers are fast-flowing, usually perennial, and empty into estuaries. Islands The Lakshadweep and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are India's two major island formations and are classified as union territories. The Lakshadweep Islands lie 200 to 300 km (120 to 190 mi) off the coast of Kerala in the Arabian Sea with an area of 32 km 2 (12 sq mi). They consist of twelve atolls, three reefs, and five submerged banks, with a total of about 36 islands and islets.

5 The Andaman and Nicobar Islands consist of 572 isles, lying in the Bay of Bengal near the Burmese coast. The territory consists of two island groups, the Andaman Islands and the Nicobar Islands. The Andaman Islands consists of 204 small islands across a total length of 352 km (219 mi). Other significant islands in India include Diu daman, a former Portuguese enclave; Majuli, a river island of the Brahmaputra; Elephanta in Bombay Harbour; and Sriharikota, a barrier island in Andhra Pradesh. Salsette Island is India's most populous island on which the city of Mumbai (Bombay) is located. Forty- two islands in the Gulf of Kutch constitute the Marine National Park. INDIA - Geography

6 Introduction to INDIA Water bodies India has around 14,500 km of inland navigable waterways. There are twelve rivers which are classified as major rivers, with the total catchment area exceeding 2,528,000 km 2 (976,000 sq mi). The Himalayan river networks are snow-fed and have a perennial supply throughout the year. The other two river systems are dependent on the monsoons and shrink into rivulets during the dry season. The Himalayan rivers that flow westward into Pakistan are the Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej. The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghana system has the largest catchment area of about 1,600,000 km2 (620,000 sq mi). The Western Ghats are the source of all Deccan rivers, all draining into the Bay of Bengal. These rivers constitute 20% of India's total outflow.

7 Introduction to INDIA The Arabian Sea lies to the west of India, the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean lie to the east and south, respectively. There are four coral reefs in India, located in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the Gulf of Mannar, Lakshadweep, and the Gulf of Kutch. Wetlands India's wetland ecosystem is widely distributed and most of the wetlands are directly or indirectly linked to river networks. The Indian government has identified a total of 71 wetlands for conservation and are part of sanctuaries and national parks. Mangrove forests are present all along the Indian coastline in sheltered estuaries, creeks, backwaters, salt marshes and mudflats. The mangrove area covers a total of 4,461 km 2 (1,722 sq mi), which comprises 7% of the world's total mangrove cover.

8 Introduction to INDIA (contd) The Sundarbans delta is home to the largest mangrove forest in the world. It lies at the mouth of the Ganges and spreads across areas of Bangladesh and West Bengal. The Sundarbans is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, but is identified separately as the Sundarbans (Bangladesh) and the Sundarbans National Park (India). Its most famous inhabitant is the Bengal Tiger. The Rann of Kutch is a marshy region located in northwestern Gujarat and the bordering Sindh province of Pakistan. It occupies a total area of km² (10,800 mile²). Bekalfort beach in Kerala A map of the Indian Sunderbans Sunrise-Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu Reference

9 Introduction to Indian Maritime Foundation The Indian Maritime Foundation (IMF) was established in Dec 1993 by a group of officers who have served in the Indian Navy, the Indian Merchant Marine, and other professions. They have dedication and a high sense of commitment to this cause of public service that they have embarked upon. The IMF is a non profit organization, registered in Pune as a charitable trust. It has branches in Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai. The Indian Maritime Foundation joined the ICC programme in 2003 and has been conducting the event throughout India, on the third Saturday of September every year. It is our endeav- our to identify new community leaders among the young people to lead and organize the cleanup in their areas and to thereby continue to expand the ambit of the ICC in India.

10 Introduction to India Coordinator – Cdr. Mukund Lélé Commander Mukund Lele retired prematurely in 1982, after serving in the Indian Navy for 17 years, including tenures on the aircraft carrier and other warships. He taught Electronics at the Naval College, and was Project Manager for a number of warship design projects. For ten years after leaving the Navy he worked in India. Thereafter he worked in Saudi Arabia, and from 1996 to 2008 was in Dubai as General Manager of a marine safety company. He has completed the ISO 9001:2000 Lead Quality Auditors course, and undertakes Quality Audits on behalf of ABS. Mukund is active in social service in Pune, supporting NGOs in environmental-friendly initiatives. He is a council member of the Indian Maritime Foundation, and also the ‘National Society for Clean Cities’. He takes an active interest in children’s education, particularly in spreading awareness of the Ocean, and preserving our ocean resources. He has been coordinating the ICC in India since 2011, and was appointed ‘Country Coordinator’ in 2012.

11 What do you expect from participating in this Program? In India we face several hurdles including public apathy and a Government which constitutes laws, but does not have adequate machinery to enforce implementation. The largely rural population have poor literacy levels and are so burdened by their difficult financial position, that they do not have the motivation to visualize the consequences of neglecting the environment. My object in participating in this workshop is to understand the problems faced by other country coordinators and to share information about the obstacles and hurdles that I have experienced. We can support each other by sharing information, by generating ideas and concepts to help overcome these issues, and thus accelerate the spread of awareness to protect our ocean environment.

12 National situation of marine debris problem The marine debris problem in India is focused on the incessant and indiscriminate use of plastic bags. This problem is largely aggravated inland, where rivers and lakes and dams are choked by debris dumped by humans, with steadily growing and disastrous consequences on aquatic life. Coastal debris is largely around beaches and is either a result of a lack of solid waste management (SWM) in the coastal villages and towns, or due to thoughtless (mainly domestic) tourists. Some amount of marine debris is due to coasting ships or large commercial vessels, clandestinely and illegally clearing their bilges offshore before entering harbor.

13 Brief analysis of problem of marine debris in India Strengths Population: India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 1.21 billion people (2011 census), and has more than 50% of its population below the age of 25, and more than 65% below the age of 35. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_India). 84 % of the population lives in rural areas (http://censusindia.gov.in/2011- prov-results/paper2/data_files/india/Rural_Urban_2011.pdf ). With the exception of India, the bulk of Asia’s population is coastal, or near coastal. Of the region’s collective population of 3.5 billion, 60% or 2.1 billion — live within 400 kilometers of a coast. (http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/websites/retiredsites/natdia_pdf/3hinrichsen.pdf).

14 Analysis of problem of marine debris in India (contd) Weakness In such a vast land it is only natural that there will be huge diversity. There are over 1500 mother-tongues in India, and though Hindi is the national language, it or its dialects are spoken by only 73% of the population, thus communication with the masses is not simple. The culture and habits across the country vary greatly, which again makes communication with the masses an obstacle. While on the one hand, India has a huge and growing bank of engineering & IT graduates, when we look at the rural masses the picture is quite different. Education, and state-supported infrastructure, has not reached far enough into the interior. It is not easy to inculcate a sense of self- discipline and the need to protect the environment, to people struggling to earn enough to feed themselves and their families. On the other hand, in urban areas, more recently, a rapid increase of purchasing power among the ‘middle class’ has fuelled consumerism, which in turn means more plastic bags and polystyrene packing material, etc. Sadly, far too many city corporations and councils are filled with less-educated citizens (voted to power by a combination of money and muscle), so ‘Solid Waste Management’ is often just a hyped-up term, and far too much debris and chemicals pollute the rivers that pass through our towns and cities.

15 Analysis of problem of marine debris in India (contd.)

16 This photograph actually reveals the shocking extent of pollution of the Yamuna River in India that has caused a thick layer of foam to completely cover it. Parts of the Yamuna are now described as a 'dead river' meaning the pollution level is so bad that there is not enough oxygen in it for fish or other marine life to survive. Taking a bubble bath: A Hindu devotee offers prayers after a dip in the Yamuna River, surrounded by industrial waste, during the religious Karthik Purnima ceremony in New Delhi, India

17 Analysis of problem of marine debris in India (contd.) Opportunities In urban areas it is relatively easier, as children are ideal targets to sow the seeds of environmental consciousness. With 314,914 middle & senior schools and 9,906 colleges (Annual Report , Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India) in the country, this is a huge base to work with to reach the masses. Thus, school and college students in urban areas are the greatest opportunity for spreading awareness. While there is some awareness of environmental (earth & air) conservation in the country, there is unfortunately a complete lack of attention to marine conservation. In fact, though the high school curriculum does include “environment” as a subject, there is no mention whatsoever of protecting and conserving the marine environment. In India, efforts to protect the marine environment from marine debris and pollution is pursued almost entirely by NGOs and non-profit organizations. Although a sizeable number and they are doing stellar work, there is little or no effective support from government agencies. There is a Ministry of Environment, and there are laws to protect the environment, but no purposeful action and implementation, and very little if any focus on the marine environment.

18 Govt. of India policy on marine debris The Govt. of India has a Ministry of Environment and Forests, and State Govts. similarly have their Env. Depts., which govern this subject. Unfortunately the focus of rules, regulations and governance is on land and atmospheric pollution, and the little attention paid to marine/ water pollution is restricted to river (fresh) water. Awareness of the looming dangers of marine/ ocean pollution due to man-made debris is entirely lacking. The only Govt. effort to curb debris is banning the use of plastic bags less than 50 microns. Sadly, there is woefully poor enforcement of this regulation. Consequently, during cleanups, most of the debris collected is almost exclusively some derivative of plastic.

19 Results of International Coastal Cleanup in India Our historical results are as follows: YEARPERSONS QTY (KG)DIST (KM)BAGS {P} {P} {M} ,873 58,147 9, ,808 10,728 1, ,284 5,288 8, ,753 83,175 12, ,496 77,409 5,

20 ICC 2011 – Dept of Ocean Studies and Marine Biology, Port Blair

21 ICC 2011 – Secondary school, Mithivirdi, Bhavnagar, Gujarat

22 ICC 2011 – Ecole Mondial World school, Juhu Beach, Mumbai

23 Results of 2012 International Coastal Cleanup in India Organization DCRT # State County/Zo ne Site NameCleanup DateType PPMBags Dive India And. & Nic. Ils.Andaman Nemo Reef, Havelock Island 01/09/2013U/water Det Ocean Studies 41345And. & Nic. Ils.Port Blair Collinpur Sunset Beach 09/08/2012Beach 631, IIC Andhra Pradesh Vishakapat nam AP- Rishikonda Beach 09/23/2012Beach 881, IIC Andhra Pradesh Vishakapat nam Bhimunipatn am beach 09/15/2012Beach 751, Etasi-Timpany School 41347Andhra Pradesh Vishakapat nam Ramakrishna Beach 09/29/2012Beach 7001, MHRS 41689GoaPanaji Miramar Beach to Youth Hostel 09/15/2012Beach BITS 41690GoaSouth Goa Goa-Majorda Beach 09/30/2012Beach JJK/Kesarinan dan Gp Gujarat Ahmedaba d Kankaria Lake09/15/2012Beach Univ Bhavnagar 41692GujaratBhavnagarGuj-Koliak09/02/2012Beach 603, Univ Bhavnagar 41691GujaratBhavnagar Mithivirdi Coast 12/11/2012Beach 2062, Prakruti Nature Club GujaratJunagadh Birla Beach, Veraval 09/15/2012Beach 5509, Prakruti Nature Club GujaratJunagadhDhamlej Beach, Sutrapada 09/20/2012Beach 2006,

24 Results of 2012 International Coastal Cleanup in India Organization DCRT # State County/Zo ne Site NameCleanup DateType PPMBags Prakruti Nature Club GujaratJunagadh Muldwarka Beach, Kodinar 09/29/2012Beach 954, Gir Eco 42024GujaratJunagadh Santeshvar Mahadev,Ma dhvad 09/08/2012Beach 5821, JJK/Fisheries College GujaratJunagadhVeraval09/15/2012Beach JJK/GNCS GujaratVadodraSindhrot09/22/2012Beach ERM 41697HaryanaGurgaon Aravalli Biodiversity Park 10/14/2012Beach YAK India 41722Karnataka Dakshin Karnataka Someshwara Beach 12/09/2012Beach Ocean Cadet Academy 42022Maharashtra Akurdi - Ravet River - Pune Akurdi: Ravet River 10/13/2012Beach 3821, Bharat Scouts MaharashtraDehu Dehu - Indrayani River 11/06/2012Beach Black & Veatch 41777MaharashtraGoraiGorai Beach09/15/2012Beach Bharat Scouts MaharashtraKamshet Kamshet - Indrayani River 09/12/2012Beach Shantiniketan School 41702MaharashtraKolhpur Rajaram Bandhara North 09/24/2012Beach Shantiniketan School 41707MaharashtraKolhpurRajaram Bhandara South 12/11/2012Beach

25 Results of 2012 International Coastal Cleanup in India Organization DCRT # State County/Zo ne Site NameCleanup DateType PPMBags INS Shivaji MaharashtraLonavala 10/13/2012Beach Bharat Scouts MaharashtraLonavala Lonavala - Indrayani River 09/12/2012Beach Oberoi Intl School 41840MaharashtraMumbaiAksa Beach09/30/2012Beach CMCA - Six schools MaharashtraMumbai Girgaum Chowpatty 09/24/2012Beach CMCA - Six schools MaharashtraMumbai Girgaum Chowpatty 09/26/2012Beach Bank of America MaharashtraMumbaiJuhu Beach11/24/2012Beach RBScotland 41830MaharashtraMumbaiJuhu Beach09/22/2012Beach Oberoi Intl School 41839MaharashtraMumbaiMarve Beach09/30/2012Beach ERM MaharashtraMumbaiVasai Beach10/06/2012Beach VEDEO 41836MaharashtraMumbai Versova Beach 09/30/2012Beach Centre Point School 41715MaharashtraNagpur Phutala Lake North 09/26/2012Beach Centre Point School 41719MaharashtraNagpurPhutala Lake South 09/26/2012Beach

26 Results of 2012 International Coastal Cleanup in India Organization DCRT # State County/Zo ne Site NameCleanup DateType PPMBags Bharat Scouts Maharashtra Narayanga on Narayangaon - Bhima River 11/06/2012Beach OSI, Pune MaharashtraPune 16 sites- Mula & Mutha rivers 10/13/2012Beach NDA MaharashtraPune Khadakwasla Lake 10/04/2012Beach Bharat Scouts MaharashtraPune Loni Kalbhor, Mula Mutha River 09/12/2012Beach DGPS MaharashtraPune Quarry Lake on Vetal Tekdi 12/16/2012Beach YAK India 41725MaharashtraRatnagiriDabhol Port10/09/2012U/water HealingTouch Foundation 42017MaharashtraRatnagiri GANPATIPUL E BEACH 10/07/2012Beach 125, Bharat Scouts MaharashtraSaswad Saswad - Karha River 10/10/2012Beach Bharat Scouts MaharashtraShirur Shirur - Bhima River 10/08/2012Beach Nature Drive 42023OrissaBalangir Eleven sites spread over 250 mls 10/11/2012Beach , Nature Drive 42020Orissa Bhubanesh war Gopalpur Beach 10/09/2012Beach 6204, Nature Drive 42018OrissaBhubanesh war Nehur Bangla- R. Mahanadi 10/06/2012Beach

27 Results of 2012 International Coastal Cleanup in India Organization DCRT # State County/Zo ne Site NameCleanup DateType PPMBags Nature Drive 42019Orissa Bhubanesh war Paradip Port- Seabeach 10/06/2012Beach 8224, Nature Drive 42021OrissaPuri ORI-Puri Beach 10/08/2012Beach BCM Arya Model School PunjabLudhiana 09/28/2012Beach IMF South Tamil NaduChennai 48 Various Villages 09/15/2012Beach , Dover India Pvt. Ltd Tamil Nadu Chennai Kottivakkam beach 09/15/2012Beach 752, Peoples Action for Development Tamil Nadu Erwadi Unit Sixteen villages 09/29/2012Beach SOS VC-IngVysya 42134Tamil Nadu Nagapattin am Nagapattina m Beach 10/15/2012Beach Peoples Action for Development Tamil Nadu Rameswa ram Seven villages 10/06/2012Beach Peoples Action for Development Tamil Nadu Vembar Unit Seven villages 09/15/2012Beach TOTALS16,722147, ,928

28 ICC 2012 – Top Ten Countries

29 Results of ICC 2012 in India Land Underwater/Watercraft Total Country People Pounds Miles People Pounds Miles People Pounds Miles Country India16,726145, , ,756147, Total550,9049,941,51816, ,729208,4701, ,633 10,149,988 17,718.5 India dropped from fourth position in ICC2011, to seventh position in ICC 2012

30 Analysis of Results of ICC 2012 in India The number of volunteers in ICC 2012 were 16,756 compared to 23,496 in ICC Factors: 1. The main reason for the fall was that two organizers (both in South India) of large volunteer groups were not able to reach out to the villages in time. A third organizer decided not to participate, as they were busy with other projects. 2. Because of inclement weather, the turnout was poorer than expected. September is the monsoon period for the West Coast, and the East Coast also has occasional storms during this period. 3. Lack of knowledge of English among a large proportion of potential volunteers precludes them from completing Data Cards. 4. Lack of access to computers in a number of organizations. 5. Because of the local language issue, a number of organizations are unable to record and forward PPM results in English. 6. A few organizations are keen on participating in the cleanup but find filling up Data Cards a tiresome process and try to avoid it. 7. Absence of the country coordinator during the period immediately before and after the cleanup, led to lack of effective follow-up and data submission.

31 Analysis of Results of ICC 2012 in India (contd.) On the other hand,in 2012 we achieved two major successes: 1. Firstly, three schools located inland participated for the first time and organized their cleanups very successfully. 2. Secondly, for the first time we were able to arrange underwater cleanups. Cleanups in more locations serves to spread greater awareness, compared to more volunteers at the same location.

32 Other programs on Marine debris, education, etc. The Indian Maritime Foundation (IMF) conducts lectures for graduate students at the Univ. of Pune, in Maritime Strategy and Ocean resources. IMF conducts seminars on underwater technology in conjunction with the local Chamber of Commerce, to encourage entrepreneurs to undertake research in alternative wave energy, and manufacturing of parts and or sub- assemblies of autonomous underwater vehicles. IMF conducts lectures in schools and colleges on Oceanography.

33 Conclusion Spreading awareness among the public is not a simple or easy task. It requires dedicated and sustained efforts. Citizens must realize that the indiscriminate pollution of river waters and water bodies spells doom. The enormity of the problem of marine debris has yet neither been understood, nor addressed, by the Government. Making rules that only govern protection of the earth and air environment and completely neglecting the marine aspect is fraught with grave consequences for future generations.

34 Conclusion (contd) Many of the problems and issues stated in this presentation may sound familiar to other participants of this workshop. Finding solutions to the problems and sharing them with each other is vitally important. I must express my gratitude to the KIOST for organizing this AMETEC 2013 workshop and for creating this platform for countries in the Asia-Pacific region. I would also like to thank KIOST for bearing the entire expenses for this program, and I look forward to building on this over the next few years, for our mutual benefit.

35 THANK YOU Thank you for your patience, and for giving me the opportunity to present this country report on INDIA. 감사합니다.


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