Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Hypertension Detector for Developing Countries Matthew Trachtenberg.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Hypertension Detector for Developing Countries Matthew Trachtenberg."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hypertension Detector for Developing Countries Matthew Trachtenberg

2 Leading Causes of Deaths, by Country Income Level "Global Health Risks: Selected Figures and Tables." (2004). Matthew Trachtenberg 2010

3 What are the biggest contributors to global mortality – Risk Factors Lopez, AD, CD Mathers, and M Ezzati. Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors. Oxford University Press, USA, Print. Matthew Trachtenberg % of Deaths Worldwide

4 Costs of Hypertension Suboptimal blood pressure costs $370 Billion globally – Treatment may cost up to $1 Trillion in health spending – Indirect costs could be as high as $3.6 Trillion annually Gaziano, T., Bitton, A., Anand, S., Weinstein, M.,,. (2009). The Global Cost of Nonoptimal Blood Pressure. Journal of Hypertension, 27(7), Matthew Trachtenberg 2010

5 Need 1: Detect Hypertension Reliably detect hypertension (systolic BP > 140mmHg, diastolic BP > 90mmHg) – False Positives versus False Negatives Matthew Trachtenberg 2010

6 Births Attended by Skilled Health Personnel "World Health Statistics." (2009).. Matthew Trachtenberg 2010

7 Need 2: User-Friendly Easy to use – user may not be able to read or understand numbers Minimal training required Matthew Trachtenberg 2010

8 Preeclampsia Preeclampsia/eclampsia is a severe complication of pregnancy classically diagnosed by severe hypertension and protein in urine Preeclampsia/eclampsia is currently the 2 nd leading cause of maternal mortality in developing countries; partly due to low detection rates Of the small fraction of women who receive prenatal care, only half of them are estimated to have had their blood pressures monitored Treatment (injectable magnesium sulfate) is cheap and effective but relies on accurate and early diagnosis Matthew Trachtenberg 2010

9 Preeclampsia Duley, Lelia. "The Global Impact of Pre-Eclampsia and Eclampsia." Seminars in Perinatology 33 3 (2009): Print. (A) Size of territory drawn according to its land area. (B) Size of territory drawn according to its population. (C) Size of territory drawn according to the proportion of maternal deaths that occur there Matthew Trachtenberg 2010

10 Need 3: Respect the Culture Women in deeply conservative societies will not expose their upper arm to a volunteer for a typical blood pressure cuff. Matthew Trachtenberg 2010

11 Public Spending on Health Dorling, Newman, et. al. World Mapper (2005).. Matthew Trachtenberg 2010 Per Person:

12 Need 4: Usable in Developing Countries Inexpensive to manufacture (<$10) Devices that can be recharged/powered by alternative power sources. Robust in wide temperature ranges and in extreme dry and wet areas. Survive water and drops Matthew Trachtenberg 2010

13 Hypertension Detector - Preeclampsia Purpose: Detect all preeclampsia conditions by testing in a community done by semi-literate volunteers who will visit house to house to check the blood pressure of pregnant women on a regular basis. Specifications: Reliably detect hypertension (systolic BP > 140mmHg, diastolic BP > 90mmHg) Easy to use– user may not be able to read or understand numbers Minimal training needed. Easy to accurately calibrate in the field Culturally compatible e.g. women in deeply conservative societies will not expose their upper arm for a typical blood pressure cuff. Inexpensive to manufacture (<$10) Power that can be recharged/generated by alternative power sources. Robust in wide temperature ranges and in extreme dry and wet areas. Matthew Trachtenberg 2010 As Requested by JHPIEGO

14 Intra-arterial Measurement Highly Accurate Highly Invasive Extensive Training Required Expensive Recording Equipment Necessary Technologies Available for Preeclampsia Diagnosis surement%20methods%20&%20values/slides/F% b%20Intra-arterial%20blood%20pressure%20measurent.html Matthew Trachtenberg 2010

15 Korotkoff Sounds No power source Extensive Training Required – Sphygmomanometer – Cuff inflated above arterial pressure (obliteration of pulse) – Cuff is gradually deflated – Korotkoff sounds appear and disappear at the systolic and diastolic pressure respectively Necessary to interpret numbers/results correctly Key technologies needed for Preeclampsia Diagnosis Matthew Trachtenberg 2010 Perloff, D, et al. "Human Blood Pressure Determination by Sphygmomanometry." Circulation 88 5 (1993): Print.

16 Key technologies needed for Preeclampsia Diagnosis Complete Care Blood Pressure System - $129 Two cuff sizes Reports systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse, time, and date Has hypertension indicator Has irregular heartbeat detector Stores and averages readings Runs on 4 AAA batteries Matthew Trachtenberg 2010

17 Key technologies needed for Preeclampsia Diagnosis Gitway Inc Blood Pressure Monitor - $20 Worn on the wrist Shows your pulse and systolic/diastolic pressures Memory recall stores 60 previous readings Requires two AA batteries (not included) Matthew Trachtenberg 2010

18 Key technologies needed for Preeclampsia Diagnosis de Greeff, A., et al., Development of an accurate oscillometric blood pressure device for low resource settings. Blood Pressure Monitoring, (6): p Microlife 3AS1-2 ~$30 Semi-automated upper arm device Memory of 60 readings with averaging ability Blood pressure and pulse measurement Matthew Trachtenberg 2010

19 Key technologies needed for Preeclampsia Diagnosis Matthew Trachtenberg 2010 Clinitek 100 Ames - $700 Configured to read MULTISTIX 10 SG Reagent Strips ( ~ $0.35 each) A reflectance photometer that analyzes the color and intensity of the light reflected from the reagent area and displays the results in clinically meaningful units.

20 Dipsticks for Proteinuria In the absence of protein, the dipstick panel is yellow. Proteins in solution interfere with the dye- buffer combination, causing the panel to turn green. Indicate early renal damage. Carroll, MF, and JL Temte. "Proteinuria in Adults: A Diagnostic Approach." American family physician 62 6 (2000): Print. Matthew Trachtenberg 2010 Key technologies needed for Preeclampsia Diagnosis

21 How the Devices Add Up Matthew Trachtenberg 2010

22 My First Prototype < $20 Matthew Trachtenberg 2010 Photoplethysmography

23 Modular and Alternative Power Sources Matthew Trachtenberg 2010 Honors Instrumentation Project Fall 2009 – Trachtenberg, Stark

24 Design – Gowri Jayaram and Shin Rong Lee Automatic pump to inflate Solenoid valve to deflate Used parts and packaging from a disassembled wrist BP cuff on the market Battery Powered (9v) Matthew Trachtenberg 2010 Honors Instrumentation Project Fall 2009

25 Oscillometric Method Matthew Trachtenberg blood-pressure-8.shtml

26 New Design/Project Proposal Cost < $10 Interchangeable with any standard cuff Has hypertension indicator (initially measures just diastolic pressure but eventually both) – Visual LED (red/green) feedback means there is no need for an LCD screen Crank-powered. ~20 seconds of cranking per use Manual pump to inflate and a leaky valve to deflate Worn on the wrist Matthew Trachtenberg 2010

27 New Design/Project Proposal Matthew Trachtenberg 2010

28 Is this just a cheap version of other devices? Matthew Trachtenberg 2010 No. A crank utilized to charge a super-capacitor will eliminate costs from batteries and their replacements. A super-capacitor can withstand the charging and discharging over the entire life of the device without a replacement needed. Instead of an LCD screen outputting specific numbers, the microcontroller will interpret what they mean and diagnose the person as hypertensive or healthy. This will save LCD screen costs and make the device more user-friendly. The device is designed to be modular so that donated cuffs can be used with the device and replaced by new ones as needed.

29 Acknowledgements JHPIEGO Dr. Acharya and Dr. Thakor for their guidance and assistance Mr. Christopher Browne and Mr. Martin Pearson for his advice, and materials Heather Benz, Nasir Bhanpuri, Mehdi Rahman, Bejan Darbandi, Natan Davidovics for their advice, and input

30 Questions/Feedback Matthew Trachtenberg 2010

31 Blood Pressure Detection Algorithm Matthew Trachtenberg 2010 Pump to 180mmHg Light Green LED Deflate Cuff ~(2mmHg/s) Detect Max Pulse Amplitude and 2/3 Pulse Amplitude Ye s NoNo Read Pressure >90 mm Hg <90m mHg Light Yellow LED Crank device for power Ye s NoNo Light Red LED Light Red LED Light Green LED

32 Circuit Diagram Matthew Trachtenberg 2010

33 Cost Analysis -Wrist Cuff with Air Bladder, Bulb, Tubing $ Pressure Sensor $ Circuit components $ Hand Crank Power Generator $ 2.00 TOTAL COST $15.39 Matthew Trachtenberg 2010

34 System Circuit Matthew Trachtenberg 2010


Download ppt "Hypertension Detector for Developing Countries Matthew Trachtenberg."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google