5Indirect effects: Economic slowdown … discourages exports of all countries, but especially of countries with high exports to developed countries.… encourages fall commodity prices, which affects many of the poorest developing countries.… discourages investment in all countries, but especially in poorer developing countries which are perceived to be riskier.… encourages increased profit remittances from developing countries to developed.… discourages workers’ remittances from developed countries to developing countries.
9Concluding thoughts The unraveling of the crisis: Credit crunch -- falling investment -- falling demand -- falling exports -- falling commodity prices -- falling economic growth -- falling aid?Resolution of the current crisis:Possibly restrict capital outflows -- rescue systemically relevant financial institutions -- pursue counter-cyclical macroeconomic policies – coordinate macro-economic policies -- step-up social protection.Prevention of future crisis:Strengthen regulation of and oversight over financial markets – address moral hazard through micro-prudential regulations – limit speculative capital flows through macro-prudential policies – discourage large and prolonged exchange rate misalignments.
10Concluding thoughts“Financial markets have for some time had an independent capacity to destabilize developing countries; there are now increasing indications of the vulnerability of all countries to financial crisis. […] Overall, there appears to be a need for more collective control and guidance over international finance. ”The Trade and Development Report 1990.