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Conclusions: Must, Have (got) to, May, Might, Could, Can’t A Visit to the Doctor 11 Focus on Grammar 3 Part VIII, Unit 37 By Ruth Luman, Gabriele Steiner,

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Presentation on theme: "Conclusions: Must, Have (got) to, May, Might, Could, Can’t A Visit to the Doctor 11 Focus on Grammar 3 Part VIII, Unit 37 By Ruth Luman, Gabriele Steiner,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Conclusions: Must, Have (got) to, May, Might, Could, Can’t A Visit to the Doctor 11 Focus on Grammar 3 Part VIII, Unit 37 By Ruth Luman, Gabriele Steiner, and BJ Wells Copyright © 2006. Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Am I OK? So, what seems to be the problem? Well, I have terrible pain in my stomach. What could the problem be? We’ll need to take some X-rays and do some tests to find out. There are several possibilities.

3 Meaning We often make guesses and draw conclusions about present situations using the information we have. We use modals to show how certain or uncertain we are about our conclusions. must have (got) to may might, could can’t, couldn’t must not may not might not 100% Certain 0% Certain PositiveNegative

4 Affirmative Conclusions When we are almost 100% certain, we use must, have to, or have got to to state affirmative conclusions. I looked at all the test results, and I talked to the patient. I believe that… Mr. Jones must have an ulcer. He has to be in pain. He’s got to be very uncomfortable.

5 Possibilities When we are less certain about our conclusion, we use may, might, or could to express that something is possible. I see something unusual. Mr. Jones could have an ulcer. He may have an infection. He might be very sick.

6 Practice 1 Look at each part of the photograph one at a time. Try to guess what it is. Increase the certainty of your guesses by using the appropriate modals. must have (got) to may might, could 100% Certain 0% Certain An X-ray of the heart and lungs. This might be …

7 Negative Conclusions 1 Use can’t and couldn’t when you are almost 100% certain that something is impossible. Use must not when you are slightly less certain. The X-rays look good. It can’t be an infection. The patient couldn’t have heartburn. It must not be serious.

8 Use may not and might not when you are even less certain. Negative Conclusions 2 Your illness might not be serious. You may not need to stay in the hospital.

9 Questions Use can and could in questions. The test results are not clear. What can the problem be? Could the patient need surgery?

10 It may be a feather. What could it be? 5. It can’t be skin. Practice 2 Look at the objects under a microscope. Ask and answer questions about possibility. Use positive and negative modals. stomach of a spider eye of an insecta feather cotton fibers tongue of a snailskin Example: It must be cotton fibers. 1.2.3.4. (Example) (#1) (#2)(#3) (#4) (#5)

11 Short Answers may not He may not. The surgeon might operate first. In short answers, use a modal alone. Does the patient have a broken bone? Does he need a cast? has to He has to. He was in a serious accident.

12 Be Careful! Use be in short answers to questions that include be. Oh wait. It has to be. I see the brain stem. Could that be an image of my brain? I’m not sure. It might be.

13 Practice 3 Ask and answer questions about the X-rays. Use short answers. Possible Questions Could X-ray # ___ be a ___? Can X-ray #___ be a ___? Possible Answers It has to be./It’s got to be. It may/might/could be. kneebrain 1. 2. Example: shoulder It might be. Could that X-ray be a knee?

14 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education and its licensors. All rights reserved. References


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