2Am I OK? So, what seems to be the problem? There are several possibilities.Well, I have terrible pain in my stomach.What could the problem be?We’ll need to take someX-rays and do some tests to find out.
3MeaningWe often make guesses and draw conclusions about present situations using the information we have.100% Certain0% CertainPositiveNegativemusthave (got) tomaymight, couldcan’t, couldn’tmust notmay notmight notWe use modals to show how certain or uncertain we are about our conclusions.
4Affirmative Conclusions When we are almost 100% certain, we use must, have to, or have got to to state affirmative conclusions.Mr. Jones must have an ulcer.I looked at all the test results, and I talked to the patient. I believe that…He has to be in pain.He’s got to be very uncomfortable.
5Possibilities I see something unusual. Mr. Jones could have an ulcer. When we are less certain about our conclusion, we use may, might, or could to express that something is possible.I see something unusual.Mr. Jones could have an ulcer.He may have an infection.He might be very sick.
6Practice 1 This might be … 100% Certain must have (got) to may Look at each part of the photograph one at a time. Try to guess what it is. Increase the certainty of your guesses by using the appropriate modals.Practice 1100% CertainThis might be …musthave (got) tomaymight, could0% CertainAn X-ray of the heartand lungs.
7Negative Conclusions 1 It can’t be an infection. The X-rays look good. Use can’t and couldn’t when you are almost 100% certain that something is impossible. Use must not when you are slightly less certain.It can’t be an infection.The X-rays look good.The patient couldn’t have heartburn.It must not be serious.
8Negative Conclusions 2Use may not and might not when you are even less certain.Your illness might not be serious.You may not need to stay in the hospital.
9Questions Use can and could in questions. What can the problem be? The test results are not clear.Could the patient need surgery?
10It must be cotton fibers. Look at the objects under a microscope. Ask and answer questions about possibility. Use positive and negative modals.Practice 21.Example:2.It can’t be skin.5.It may be a feather.What could it be?It must be cotton fibers.3.4.stomach of a spider eye of an insect a feathercotton fibers tongue of a snail skin(#5)(#2)(#3)(Example)(#4)(#1)
11Short Answers In short answers, use a modal alone. He may not. The surgeon might operate first.Does the patient have a broken bone?Does he need a cast?He has to. He was in a serious accident.
12Be Careful! Use be in short answers to questions that include be. Oh wait. It has to be. I see the brain stem.Could that be an image of my brain?I’m not sure. It might be.
13Could that X-ray be a knee? Ask and answer questions about the X-rays. Use short answers.Practice 3Possible QuestionsCould X-ray # ___ be a ___?Can X-ray #___ be a ___?Possible AnswersIt has to be./It’s got to be.It may/might/could be.Could that X-ray be a knee?It might be.1.2.Example:kneeshoulderbrain