3Ability Logical conclusion Necessity Obligation Permission Possibility We use modal verbs for:AbilityLogical conclusionNecessityObligationPermissionPossibilityProhibitionRequestsAdvice
4friends’ telephone numbers. AbilityCan, couldI can remember all myfriends’ telephone numbers.He could swim by the timehe was 3.
5the phone. She must be out. This can’t be the South Logical conclusionCan’t be, must beAnn isn’t answeringthe phone. She must be out.This can’t be the SouthPole.There aren’t anypenguins.
6Logical conclusion about the past Must/can’t have V3You must have been tiredafter all that hard work lastweek.You can’t have been tiredlast Sunday – you slept forhours.
7I have to cycle to school. It’s too far to walk. Necessity or lack of ithave to, don’t have toI have to cycle to school.It’s too far to walk.I don’t have to go to schooltoday – it’s a nationalholiday.
8You mustn’t steal other people’s things. It’s wrong. ObligationMust, mustn’tYou must do thishomework carefully.You mustn’t steal otherpeople’s things. It’s wrong.
9We had to stay behind after the lesson and do some extra work. Obligation in the pastHad toWe had to stay behind afterthe lesson and do someextra work.
10Can, could, may You can borrow my bike, but you can’t have the car. PermissionCan, could, mayYou can borrow my bike,but you can’t have the car.Could my friends come to staynext weekend?May I speak loud here?
11She might be in the library. PossibilityMay, mightAnn is not in class.She might be in the library.Sam may come to thecinema with us – I’m notsure if he’s free.
12a dictionary in the exam. ProhibitionMustn’tStudents mustn’t usea dictionary in the exam.
13Could you pass me the salt? Would you mind pouring me some water? RequestsCan,could, wouldCan you tell me the time,please?Could you pass me the salt?Would you mind pouringme some water?
15You should have written to your family.(but you didn't.) Late adviceShould have V3You should have written toyour family.(but you didn't.)
16You could have tried a new method (but you didn't choose to.) Lost opportunityCould have V3You could have tried a newmethod (but you didn'tchoose to.)
17should mustn’t must could must be have to may can might Ability MatchshouldAbilitymustn’tPossibilitymustNecessitycouldLogical conclusionmust beRequestshave toObligationmayAdvicecanPermissionmightProhibition