High-Incidence Exceptionalities Include: Giftedness or Developmentally Advanced Learning Disabilities Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Communication Exceptionalities ~ exceptionalities in speech and language (I wonder if I have one at times?). When speech deviates so much as to draw unwanted attention, interferes with communication or causes distress in the speaker. Behaviour and Emotional Exceptionalities ~ dysfunctional interactions between the student and his/her environment. Inability to build and maintain a satisfactory interpersonal relationship with peers and adults. Mild Intellectual Disabilities ~ lower than average intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour.
Communication Exceptionalities Generally a disorder in speech (articulation voice and frequency) and disorders of language (expressive or receptive) Language delay ~ 6 months behind milestones for young students Receptive language ~ failure to understand oral instructions Expressive language ~ cannot be understood refusal to speak in front of class Aphasia ~ cannot understand speech or produce meaningful sentences Apraxia ~ lacks muscle movement sequencing Articulation ~ cannot produce certain sounds Dysfleuncy ~ stuttering Voice disorders ~ does not speak with normal pitch loudness duration Orofacial defects ~ cleft palate is perhaps most common Dysarthria ~ paralysis of speaking muscles
Communication Exceptionalities Accepting and inclusive environment ~ model behaviour Respond to what the students say rather than how they say it. Make typical eye contact with students, and pause a few seconds before responding to show them how to relax. Do not hurry students when they speak, criticize or correct their speech, or force them to speak in front of others. Collaborate with families and speech/language clinicians to learn about their concerns and expectations and to get their suggestions. Teach students to monitor and think positively about their speech. Serve as a good speech model by reducing your speech rate, pausing at appropriate times when speaking, and using simplified language and grammatical structures
Communication Exceptionalities George ~ video This video clip demonstrates the importance of a supportive network of friends, older children, neighbours, and a respite caregiveralong with parentsin the life of George, a young boy who has a communication disorder. As you watch this clip, reflect upon the positive outcomes of having such a support team for any child. Fast-forward George into his teen years. How might his support group change? What other school, family, or community members would you add to his support group and why? Respite caregiver Mr. Harshbarger and George often play games, such as Lord of the Rings, during their brief daily time together. What language or communication skills could be practised in the context of playing a game?
Case Study Case 20 – Dont Push Me I cant Take It In groups read and reflect on the case study Do the questions and then be prepared to share your ideas Key facts? Describe the situation in the past six months from student and teacher perspective. What is/are the major dilemma(s)? What actions do you recommend Greg Smith and the VP take to solve this/these dilemma(s)? What are the consequences on the major players of these recommendations? What have you learned from this case? Has this challenged any beliefs or assumptions?
Mild Intellectual Disabilities Same developmental stages as other students but at a slower rate ~ thus some potential challenges with pace of curriculum http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/specialed/sid/ Preparing to Teach
Mild Intellectual Disabilities Adapted Programs A student on an adapted program follows the same curriculum as peers in the same grade. The student is assessed using the established outcomes for the grade/course and receives full credit for work if the outcomes are met. The methods of reporting progress are consistent with Ministry grading and dents to meet the required outcomes and to participate more fully in the program with others in the class. Adaptations should be noted in the IEP. Adapted programs recognize the potential of student to receive a Dogwood Certificate.
Mild Intellectual Disabilities The following are examples of areas that may be adapted: Communication - The student's output may be adapted through use of a scribe, computer print-out, a computerized voice system or use of Braille. The input may be adapted through the use of an interpreter or an assistant to explain the teacher's instructions.
Mild Intellectual Disabilities The following are examples of areas that may be adapted: Instruction - The teacher may reduce the number of examples the student is required to do or increase the amount of time provided to complete an assignment. The student may require extra demonstrations or concrete examples in order to understand the material. Some may benefit from being seated closer to the teacher, the board or by having an assistant seated close by. The box on this page is an example of adapted instruction at the Grade 7 level.
Mild Intellectual Disabilities Assessment - Some students may be permitted to respond orally to examination questions; other students may need a reduced number of questions to enable them to complete the test in a given period of time.
Mild Intellectual Disabilities SubjectClass ActivityAdapted Activity Mathematics K-7 IRP Outcome: Display data by hand or by computer in a variety of ways, including histograms, bar graphs, etc. Graphing data collected the previous day from interviewing peers about favourite things. Use two types of graphs from a possible choice of bar graph, histograph, pictograph or circle graph. Jess will record data on a predesigned bar graph for choice of favourite foods or other topic he chooses from the data collected with the group. Language Arts IRP Outcome: Read independently for meaning and identify key characteristics of characters in fiction or nonfiction. Independent silent reading of novel study books. Updating of character charts for main characters. Jess will listen to the chapter of the novel being read by a peer tutor and find pictures in magazines to add to the group's character chart, which correspond to the main character in the novel, with the help of the teacher assistant. Science IRP Outcomes: Classify plants and animals according to their external and internal features and take responsibility for safe and accurate use of equipment and procedures. Examining slides of plant and animal cells using a microscope and drawing diagram models of plant and animal cells. Jess will examine slides of cells and then sort pre-drawn diagrams of cells into two categories, creating a display on experience chart paper. Microscope used in cooperative group with peer help and display activity done with teacher assistant help.
In class task Ask each student to submit one question about a high-incidence exceptionality. After establishing common themes and concerns, assign students to small working groups to address the clusters of questions. The objective is for students to get a sense of the complexity and range of challenges that face teachers of high-incidence exceptionalities. As well, students should also gain perspectives on the range of approaches available to teachers to address challenges they face and to gain an appreciation for their teaching colleagues as being one of the most valuable resources available to them throughout their career.
In class task As individuals have students to design an open-ended assignment for a class of their choice or in pairs have students design an open- ended cross-curricular assignment for a student with an exceptionality. Have each person in the pair represent a different subject area or a different set of subject areas. Use the example in Figure 3.1 on page 78. The objective is to have students engage in dialogue that leads to their understanding that students with exceptionalities often need to embrace the curriculum and instruction differently than their peers, that exceptional students will often have difficulty in more than one subject area, and that collaboration with other educators can facilitate the effective and meaningful inclusion of exceptional students.