# Measurement of Energy in Food and During Physical Activity

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Measurement of Energy in Food and During Physical Activity
Chapter 6 Measurement of Energy in Food and During Physical Activity

The Calorie Calorie One calorie expresses the quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 kg (1 L) of water by 1° Celsius. Kilocalorie (kCal) Kilojoule Megajoule The calorie is a unit of energy measurement. Kilocalorie (kCal) more accurately defines calorie. Kilojoule: standard international unit for expressing energy Megajoule: 1000 kj

Conversions 1 cal = 4.186 J 1 kCal = 1000 cal = 4186 J
1 BTU = 778 ft. lb. = 252 cal = 1055 J

Temperature Versus Heat
Temperature reflects a quantitative measure of an object’s hotness or coldness. Heat describes energy transfer from one body or system to another.

Bomb Calorimeter Measures total energy value of foods
Type of direct calorimetry Sealed chamber charged with oxygen Increase in water temperature directly reflects the heat released during a food’s oxidation. Heat of combustion Heat of combustion refers to the heat liberated by oxidizing a specific food; it represents the food’s total energy value.

Heat of Combustion Carbohydrates 4.2 kCal Lipids 9.4 kCal Proteins
The heat of combustion for carbohydrate varies depending on the arrangement of atoms in the particular carbohydrate molecule. The heat of combustion for lipid varies with the structural composition of the triacylglycerol molecule’s fatty acid components. Two factors affect energy release from protein combustion: (1) type of protein in the food and (2) relative nitrogen content of the protein.

Net Energy Value Actual energy available to the body
Coefficient of digestibility Affected by dietary fiber Atwater general factors Carbohydrates: 4 Lipids: 9 Proteins: 4 Dietary fiber reduces the coefficient of digestibility: A high-fiber meal has less total energy absorbed than does a fiber-free meal of equivalent caloric content. Considerable variability exists in efficiency percentages for any food within a particular category.

Direct Calorimetry Directly measures energy expenditure
Human calorimeter Airtight chamber A person lives or works in the chamber for an extended period of time. Changes in water temperature relate directly to an individual’s energy metabolism. A known water volume at a specified temperature circulates through a series of coils at the top of the chamber. This water absorbs the heat produced and radiated by the individual while in the calorimeter. For adequate ventilation, the person’s exhaled air continually passes from the room through chemicals that remove moisture and absorb carbon dioxide. Oxygen added to the air recirculates through the chamber.

Figure 6.2

Indirect Calorimetry Indirect calorimetry infers energy expenditure from measurements of oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production using: Closed-circuit spirometry Open-circuit spirometry Portable spirometry Bag technique Computerized instrumentation Doubly labeled water technique

Closed- and Open-Circuit Spirometry
Closed-circuit Subject breathes 100% oxygen from a prefilled container. A canister of soda lime absorbs the carbon dioxide in exhaled air. Open-circuit Subject inhales ambient air with 20.93% oxygen, 0.03% carbon dioxide, and 79.04% nitrogen. Indirectly reflects the ongoing process of energy metabolism Closed-circuit disadvantages: bulky equipment, speed of carbon dioxide removal inadequate during heavy exercise Open circuit most widely used and provides a useful way to measure oxygen uptake and infer energy expenditure.

Figure 6.3

Portable Spirometry and Bag Technique
Ambient air passes through a two-way valve. Expired air travels through a gas meter that measures total expired air. Bag technique Ambient air is breathed through one side of a valve. Air is expelled through the other side of the valve. Portable: lightweight, allows for freedom of movement, carried like a backpack. Bag technique: assessment of oxygen uptake uses an appropriate calorific transformation for oxygen to compute energy expenditure.

Figure 6.4 A

Figure 6.5

Computerized Instrumentation
A computer interfaces with at least three instruments: A system that continuously samples the subject’s expired air A flow-measuring device that records air volume breathed Oxygen and carbon dioxide analyzers that measure the composition of the expired gas mixture Newer portable systems include wireless telemetric transmission of data for metabolic measurement—pulmonary ventilation and oxygen and carbon dioxide analysis—during a broad range of exercise, sport, and occupational activities.

Figure 6.6

Doubly Labeled Water Technique
Provides a useful way to estimate total daily energy expenditure in free-living conditions Expensive Provides an ideal way to assess total energy expenditure of groups over prolonged time periods Does not have the normal constraints imposed by other indirect procedures.

The Respiratory Quotient (RQ)
The ratio of carbon dioxide produced to oxygen consumed The RQ provides information about the nutrient mixture catabolized for energy. The RQ equals 1.00 for carbohydrate, 0.70 for fat, and for protein. The RQ provides a convenient guide to approximate the nutrient mixture catabolized for energy during rest and aerobic exercise.

The Respiratory Exchange Ratio
Ratio of carbon dioxide produced to oxygen consumed Computes in exactly the same manner as RQ R above 1.00 Overbreathing Exhaustive exercise R below 0.70 Following exhaustive exercise

Energy Expenditure During Rest and Physical Activity
Three factors determine total daily energy expenditure: Resting metabolic rate Thermogenic influence of food consumed Energy expended during physical activity and recovery Resting metabolic rates includes basal and sleeping conditions.

Basal Metabolic Rate Minimum energy requirement sustains the body’s functions. Regular exercise slows a decrease in metabolism with age. Lower in females compared to males BMR averages 5–10% lower in females compared with males at all ages.

Total Daily Energy Expenditure (TDEE)
Influenced by: Physical activity Accounts for between 15% and 30% TDEE Dietary-induced thermogenesis Ranges between 10% and 35% of the ingested food energy Climate Pregnancy The resting metabolism of people who live in tropical climates, for example, averages 5–20% higher than counterparts in more temperate regions. As pregnancy progresses, increases in maternal body weight add considerably to exercise effort during weight-bearing walking, jogging, and stair climbing and may also reduce the economy of physical effort.

The Metabolic Equivalent (MET)
One MET represents an adult’s average seated, resting oxygen consumption or energy expenditure. MET provides a convenient way to rate exercise intensity with respect to a resting baseline.

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