Presentation on theme: "To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings."— Presentation transcript:
To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries. (US Constitution, Article 1, Section 8) Copyright and the Constitution
Copyright and Fair Use A Guide for Educators Presented by Karen Work Richardson November 19, 2001
The Times Are A-Changing 21st Century Classrooms Access to resources Digital technology Real-life publishing 21st Century Issues Appropriate use Fair use Intellectual property Attribution
Copyright isn’t… About money… –Control is the issue –Instruction versus non-profit About giving credit… About criminal law… –Civil suits –Some groups extend copyright privileges to users (PBS)
Test Your Knowledge Computer Ethics Quiz: –Part of a Web Quest on ethics Copyright Issues Quiz: opyright/copyrightquiz/copyrighttest.htm opyright/copyrightquiz/copyrighttest.htm Fair Use Copyright Quiz:
A Highlight: CETUS Consortium for Educational Technology in University Systems Fair Use Brochure: Includes scenarios and a listserv Here’s their copyright notice: –http://www.cetus.org/fair0.htmlhttp://www.cetus.org/fair0.html
Web Resources Stanford Fair Use Site –http://fairuse.stanford.edu/http://fairuse.stanford.edu/ Association of Research Libraries –http://arl.cni.org/info/frn/copy/timeline.htmlhttp://arl.cni.org/info/frn/copy/timeline.html PBS Copyright Resource (video use): –http://www.pbs.org/teachersource/copyright/copyri ght.shtmhttp://www.pbs.org/teachersource/copyright/copyri ght.shtm My Links:
References Davidson-Hall, “The Educators’ Lean and Mean No-Fat Guide to Fair Use,” Technology and Learning, Vol. 20 No.2, September 1999, pp Johnson, Doug. “Developing an Ethical Compass for Worlds of Learning,” Multimedia Schools, Vol.5 No. 1, November/December 1998, pp
Copyright Act of 1976 Copyright owners have the right to reproduce, prepare derivative works, distribute, perform, display, transfer ownership, rent or lend their creations.
Copyright Act of 1976 Protects original expression Eligible when creation is fixed in a tangible form Length of copyright varies Cannot sue unless registered
But there’s no notice… Tip! For works published after 1989, a copyright notice is not required so absence of a notice is not grounds for violating copyright.
Quick Copyright Tips Limit use of copyrighted materials to your classroom Give proper credit When in doubt, get permission Use web whacker software carefully Assume it’s copy written!
Avoiding Plagiarism Teach good research skills -Notetaking -Appropriate use of quotes -Paraphrasing and summarizing Make fresh assignments -Diaries and journals -Historical fiction -Investigative reporting
Internet Gem Purdue’s Writing Lab: Their Fair Use Statement:
Have a Policy Here’s one from Bellingham, Washington Requires written permission or evidence of public domain Requires student/parent written permission to publish student work Enforce clear publishing standards
Teach Your Children Well Do training appropriate to grade level Give rules (printing, access) AND guidelines (evaluation skills, appropriate use) Organize lab area for easy monitoring Interact with students as they work Department of Justice: dont/netizen.htm dont/netizen.htm
Teach Your Children Well Explain intellectual property and fair use Be a good example Related technology violations to current discipline plan Make the “ten commandments” part of your computer curriculum
Ten Commandments Developed by the Computer Ethics Institute: –http://www.brook.edu/its/cei/cei_hp.htmhttp://www.brook.edu/its/cei/cei_hp.htm Post these by every computer An easy way to approach acceptable use Discuss specific examples of each one
Ten Commandments Thou Shalt Not -Use a computer to harm other people -Interfere with other people’s computer work -Snoop around in other people’s files -Use a computer to steal -Use a computer to bear false witness -Copy or use software for which you have not paid -Use other people’s computer resources without permission -Appropriate other people’s intellectual output
Ten Commandments Thou Shalt Think about the social consequences of the program you are writing or the system you are designing Always use a computer in ways that insure consideration and respect for your fellow humans
A few vocab words… Public domain Freeware Shareware Commercial software Want to look for inexpensive or free software? Try
What Can I Use? Logical, comprehensive compilations (telephone books) Unoriginal reprints of public domain works Materials or reprints of materials in the public domain (all prior to 1923; most between ) –Chart of Works in the Publc Domain,
What Can I Use? Freeware (not shareware) Most U.S. government materials Facts Ideas, processes, methods, and systems described in copyrighted materials
E-texts Project Gutenberg –http://www.gutenberg.net/helpex.html#Allo wedhttp://www.gutenberg.net/helpex.html#Allo wed Most texts are in the public domain so you may copy and distribute freely Site itself is copy written
A Public Domain Adventure Public Domain Images will sell you public domain materials: Searched for Tacoma Narrows Bridge: tacoma/tacoma.html tacoma/tacoma.html a_Narrows/http://www.civeng.carleton.ca/Exhibits/Tacom a_Narrows/ 3.htmlhttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/bridge/tacoma 3.html Want a copy of the original film?
And what about the photos? Photos and text came from a student report published in 1974 –http://www.nwwf.com/profile/piegig01.htmhttp://www.nwwf.com/profile/piegig01.htm Compare to this page: –http://www.enm.bris.ac.uk/research/nonlinear/taco ma/tacoma.htmlhttp://www.enm.bris.ac.uk/research/nonlinear/taco ma/tacoma.html Which is a mirror of this site: –http://www.civeng.carleton.ca/Exhibits/Tacoma_N arrows/DSmith/photos.htmlhttp://www.civeng.carleton.ca/Exhibits/Tacoma_N arrows/DSmith/photos.html But where did he get them?
I Have a Dream Dr. Martin Luther King’s estate sued CBS for using CBS footage of the speech King lost even though he held copyright. His performance placed it in the public domain. ht/mlk.htmhttp://www.law.pitt.edu/madison/copyrig ht/mlk.htm
Mapquest and the Queen Terms and Conditions: bin/ia_find?link=bcorporate/corporate_c opyright&event=no_map bin/ia_find?link=bcorporate/corporate_c opyright&event=no_map “This information is provided to you "as is," and you agree to use it at your own risk. MapQuest and its licensors (and their licensors and suppliers, including Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada) make no guarantees…”
More on Maps Don’t try Yahoo: they use Mapquest Maps on Us has an incomprehensible copyright notice but provides the following helpful information on their FAQ page…
Can I put a map on my web page? “Due to licensing restrictions, we cannot authorize you to put a map image directly on a web page. However, you can add ``map of'' links to your (non-commercial) web pages. When someone clicks on that link, they will go to our site, and see a map that you have selected. The easiest way to create the url is to use our regular site to create the map you want, and then use the ``Mail It'' link to mail the map to yourself.” r=~3b79dd43.6dc1.6aba.5/c=0?Url=/doc/maps.faq.cgi&Title=FA Qhttp://MapsOnUs.switchboard.com/auxcgi/MenuFrameLR.cgi/us r=~3b79dd43.6dc1.6aba.5/c=0?Url=/doc/maps.faq.cgi&Title=FA Q
My Map! map/usr=~new/mapCentScale= %2c %2c0.40?SelectItems=- &AddMapLabel= %2c %2cTacoma+Narrows+Bridge%2c+Tac oma%2c+WA&SessionSrc=SendMail.m
I Got Carried Away… The Camera Shop in Tacoma map/usr=~new/mapCentScale= %2c %2c0.40?SelectItems=-&AddMapLabel= %2c %2c1007+Pacific+Ave&SessionSrc=SendMail.m The Bridge and the Camera Shop map/usr=~new/mapCentScale= %2c %2c2.00?SelectItems=-&AddMapLabel= %2c %2c1007+Pacific+Ave&SessionSrc=SendMail.m
Software Buy One, Install One No more than one user at a time May be allowed to install it on a computer at home and work provided no simultaneous use Buy a site license or multiple copies if that’s how you plan to use it
Don’t Copy… Video from Software Publisher’s Association (SIIA) Silly but makes its point floppy.htmlhttp://www.siia.net/store/describe/d- floppy.html
Sample Use Policies Barry’s Clipart –http://www.barrysclipart.com/Terms/http://www.barrysclipart.com/Terms/ Bill Nye Recording Rights –http://nyelabs.kcts.org/teach/faq/faq05_print.htmlhttp://nyelabs.kcts.org/teach/faq/faq05_print.html Smithsonian Image Files Rules –http://www.si.edu/siphotos/CAPTIONS/oppsrules.h tmlhttp://www.si.edu/siphotos/CAPTIONS/oppsrules.h tml National Gallery of Art –http://www.nga.gov/copyright/copy.htmhttp://www.nga.gov/copyright/copy.htm Yellowstone National Park –http://www.nps.gov/yell/press/images/index.htmhttp://www.nps.gov/yell/press/images/index.htm
Smithsonian Image Use “ In keeping with the spirit of the Internet it is the policy of the SI and OPPS to permit casual, non- commercial redistribution of this information; that is, redistribution of information where no commercialism is involved. This means that an Internet user may download a file and share it with others for no personal or commercial gain.” psrules.html
National Gallery of Art Conditions of Use The contents of this site, including all images and text, are for personal, educational, non-commercial use only. The contents of this site may not be reproduced in any form without the permission of the National Gallery of Art.
Yellowstone National Park “We frequently get requests from the media for graphics that can be used in conjunction with articles and reports on Yellowstone. To help simplify the procedure for acquiring those graphics, this page has been created to provide several publication-quality images in each of the following six categories. They are all in the public domain and are available for use free of charge.” NPS Photos
From the Government From the Library of Congress American Memory Collection –http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/copyrit2.htmlhttp://memory.loc.gov/ammem/copyrit2.html –LOC doesn’t own copyright so can’t grant permission From the National Archives and Records Administration –http://www.nara.gov/nara/terms.html#copyrighthttp://www.nara.gov/nara/terms.html#copyright –Public domain versus copyright
Doing a Search From the US Copyright Office… At your own risk No guarantees Consult a copyright attorney My advice: unless it says it isn’t, it is!
Getting Permission Suggestions from University of Texas: Property/permissn.htm Property/permissn.htm Copyright Clearance Center: –Mostly for academic photocopies
What is Fair Use? The guidelines apply to use:...without permission,...of portions,...of lawfully acquired copyrighted works,...in educational multimedia projects,...created by educators or students,...as part of a systematic learning activity,...by nonprofit educational institutions.
The Fair Use Statute Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. US Code Copyright Statement:
Fair Use Educators may use copyrighted materials within their own classrooms without express permission from the copyright owner.
Standing on Shaky Ground There are limits… “No real definition of the concept has ever emerged.” United States Code
Fair Use Standards The purpose and character of the use The nature of the copyrighted work The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the work as a whole The effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the work
Purpose Subcategories Commercial versus non-profit Criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, research (not restrictive) Degree of transformation
Purpose and Character Nonprofit Educational Personal Criticism Commentary Newsrepo rting Parody Otherwise "transformative" use Commercial Guidelines from the University of Texas Included under Fair Use Exemption of US Copyright Law
Nature of Materials Fact Published Mixture of fact and imaginative Imaginative Unpublished Amount of Use Small AmountMore than a small amount Guidelines from the University of Texas Included under Fair Use Exemption of US Copyright Law
Effect of Use Tipping towards Fair Use Original is out of print or otherwise unavailable No ready market for permission Copyright owner is unidentifiable Competes with the original Avoids payment for permission (royalties) in an established permissions market Guidelines from the University of Texas Included under Fair Use Exemption of US Copyright Law
Students May… Use lawfully acquired copyrighted works when producing their own educational multimedia projects for a specified course Perform and display their own projects in the course Retain them in their own portfolio
Educators May… Use lawfully acquired copyrighted works when producing their own educational multimedia projects to support their teaching needs Retain them indefinitely for workshops or portfolios Retain them for two years for classroom use
Parody Parody must comment on the work itself and the humor must come from the meeting of form and content Include enough of the original work to link it with the parody but the less similar the more fair use Parody can’t destroy the market value for the original
Disclaimer Only guidelines Exceeding these may or may not be fair use The bigger the excess, the bigger the risk
Single Copies A chapter from a book An article from a magazine or newspaper A short story, short essay, or short poem A chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon, or picture from a book
Portion Limitations Motion Media –Up to 10% or 3 minutes, whichever is less, of a single copyrighted motion media work Text Material –Up to 10% or 1000 words, whichever is less, of a single copyrighted work of text.
Portion Limitations Text Material - Poems An entire poem of less than 250 words –but no more than three poems by one poet, –or five poems by different poets from any single anthology. –In poems of greater length: up to 250 words but no more than three excerpts by a single poet or five excerpts by different poets from a single anthology.
Portion Limitations Music, Lyrics, and Music Video –Up to 10% –but no more than 30 seconds of music and lyrics from a single musical work –Any alterations to a musical work shall not change the basic melody or the fundamental character of the work. Illustrations and Photographs –A photograph or illustration may be used in its entirety. –No more than 5 images by an artist or photographer. –Not more than 10% or 15 images, whichever is less, from a single published collected work.
Portion Limitations Numerical Data Sets Up to 10% or 2500 fields or cell entries, whichever is less, from a database or data table. –A field entry is a specific item of information, in a record of a database file. –A cell entry is the intersection where a row and a column meet on a spreadsheet.
But it’s on the Web… Internet access does not mean works can be reproduced and used without permission or license. Some copyrighted works may have been posted without copyright holder’s permission.
Videos in the Classroom Off-air Record Guidelines: May by kept for 45 days May be shown only within the first 10 days and only twice Off-air recordings may be made only at the request of and used by a teacher. No broadcast program may be recorded off the air more than once at the request of the same teacher, regardless of the number of times that the program is broadcast. Duplicate copies may be made if requested by several teachers.
But what about that Cosby episode… From TBS who shows many Cosby reruns… I was wondering how I can go about purchasing videos of episodes from my favorite series that I watch on the Superstation every day. Can you help? Unfortunately TBS Superstation does not own the rights to sell any series episodes on video, we only have rights to broadcast. You can try an internet search for more information on purchasing episodes of your favorite series. Also try calling these major video retailers, they do offer some episodes for some series on video. (Time Life and Columbia House) I ended up at Columbia House:
Nixon’s Resignation Available from “The Nixon Project” Part of the National Archives “Finding aid” costs $127 Most news video is under network TV copyright restriction 25th Anniversary of Nixon’s Resignation presented by CNN: esigns/
One thing leads to another… The Justice department paid the Nixon estate $18 million for the papers seized during Watergate Appraisers valued it at $35 million I read the article at the National Appraisal Consultants homepage who copied it from the New Jersey Herald with a reference (http://www.nacvalue.com/news.html)http://www.nacvalue.com/news.html
A Bit More Nixon Remember our public domain images friends? They advertise a picture of Nixon bowling at the White House. Here’s mine… commerce.edu/sarantakes/nixon- images.htmlhttp://faculty.tamu- commerce.edu/sarantakes/nixon- images.html
Other Video Issues Entertainment or reward is not permitted under Fair Use: get a license from a distributor or the Motion Picture Licensing Corporation (http://www.mplc.com)http://www.mplc.com May use part of a legal copy of a movie in the classroom Check out the Home Recording Rights Coalition
GPN Educational Media What rights come with my purchase? Rights granted: Audiovisual, public performance, circulation within a single school district and building closed-circuit use are rights granted. For more info, see Rights granted and not granted.
Disney Teacher Store Disney videocassettes are protected by copyright and other laws, and all rights thereunder are reserved by the copyright owner. Disney videos sold in this catalog may be shown by nonprofit educational institutions (or their equivalents) for face-to-face instructional purposes. Purchase of videos also includes a license for transmission or broadcast within a single building or school campus, and for showing in connection with other nonteaching school-related activities, as long as no admission fee is charged. tml tml
Performance Must buy or rent scores and scripts Samuel French: Oxford University Press Rental Library: usa.org/music/rentallibrary.html usa.org/music/rentallibrary.html –Rental doesn’t grant performance rights Boosey & Hawkes: Patelson Music House:
Performance And you can’t do Cats at all… According to the exclusive licensor, the musical “is not currently available for production.” p?Show_Title1=Catshttp://www3.rnh.com/theatre/Show_Page1.as p?Show_Title1=Cats Online application:
Crediting Credit the sources Display the copyright notice for all incorporated works including fair use Credit and copyright information may be combined and shown in a separate section except for images incorporated for remote use
So, who owns the citations? The Modern Language Association sells its handbook for $14.95 and its style manual for $ So what about this university website? –http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/elec mla.htmlhttp://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/elec mla.html
The University Copyright All materials on this web site, including images, are the property of the University of Wisconsin- Madison Writing Center, and are not to be downloaded, reproduced, or used elsewhere. Please don't copy or reproduce what we've come to consider our own little bit of intellectual property. You may, of course, provide hypertext pointers to our materials, as long as proper credit is given for their source. ht.htmlhttp://www.wisc.edu/writing/AboutUs/Copyrig ht.html
Notice of Use Restrictions Materials are included under fair use exemption of U.S. Copyright Law Materials are included in accordance with the multimedia fair use guidelines. Materials are restricted from further use.
The Future UCITA: makes shrink-wrap and click-on user agreements binding Less copyright? –The Right Way –The “Internet” Way –The Middle Way? es.htmhttp://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/poets/g_l/hughes/hugh es.htm