Presentation on theme: "Overview of Experiential Education"— Presentation transcript:
1 Overview of Experiential Education Gerald E. Meyer, PharmD, MBA, FASHPAssociate Professor and Director of Experiential EducationJefferson School of Pharmacy
2 ObjectivesDescribe the driving forces behind changes in pharmacy experiential education
3 The Roadmap to Change – What is driving us? JCPP Future Vision of Pharmacy PracticeCAPE Educational Outcomes 2004IOM: Health Professions EducationACPE Standards 2007
4 Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners – 2007 Position Statement Vision: Pharmacists will be the health care professionals responsible for providing patient care that ensures optimal medication therapy outcomesPharmacy Practice in 2015Foundations of Pharmacy PracticeHow Pharmacists Will PracticeHow Pharmacy Practice Will Benefit SocietyFoundations: Pharmacy Education will prepare pharmacists to provide patient care…(so this is about “us”). Need to develop and maintain a commitment for and about patients, an-in-depth knowledge base and the ability to apply evidence to decision making.How Pharmacists will practice. Pharmacists will have authority and autonomy to manage medication therapy and will be accountable for outcomes.Benefits: Will achieve public recognition that they are essential to the provision of effective health care.
5 AACP: Center for the Advancement of Pharmaceutical Education (CAPE) Provide Pharmaceutical CareInterprofessional, Evidence-based…Patient-centered or Population basedManage and Use Resources of the Health-Care SystemHuman, medical, informationalMedication use systemsPromote Public Health
6 Institute of Medicine (IOM) Health Professions Education: A Bridge to Quality Core CompetenciesProvide patient centered careWork in interdisciplinary (Interprofessional) teamsEmploy evidence-based practiceApply quality improvementUtilize informatics
7 ACCREDITATION COUNCIL FOR PHARMACY EDUCATION ACCREDITATION STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES FOR THEPROFESSIONAL PROGRAM IN PHARMACY LEADING TOTHE DOCTOR OF PHARMACY DEGREEADOPTED: JANUARY 15, 2006RELEASED: FEBRUARY 17, 2006EFFECTIVE: JULY 1, 2007
8 ACPE Standard 14: Curricular Core- Pharmacy Practice Experiences … must provide a continuum of required and elective pharmacy practice experiences throughout the curriculum, from introductory to advanced, of adequate scope, intensity and duration to support the achievement of the PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES presented in Standard 12.
9 ACPE Standard #10 The Curriculum “… required & elective courses and experiences must effectively facilitate student development and achievement of professional competencies”Introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs): 5% of curriculumAdvanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs): 25% of curriculum
10 Standard 14: Preceptors Guideline 14.1 “… must insure preceptors receive orientation…, ongoing training, and development”“Preceptors should provide close supervision of and significant interaction with students.”“The student-to-preceptor ratio for the pharmacy practice experience should be adequate to provide individualized instruction, guidance, supervision, and assessment.”
11 Standard 11: Teaching and Learning Methods “… produce graduates who become competent pharmacists by ensuring achievement of the stated outcomes, fostering…. critical thinking and problem-solving skills… and enabling students to transition from dependent to active, self-directed, lifelong learners.”
12 Provided by and used with permission of Peter Vlasses: ACPE
14 Preparing for a Student Experiential Manual / Preceptor OrientationCreate a schedule for the individual studentTHINK of ways to integrate student into site/practice/dutiesWIN-WIN Student gains practical knowledge/skill, Preceptor/Site gains value of the task or result
15 Preparing for a Student Gather other orientation materialsOrganizational charts, maps, required readings, policies and procedures, computer training, etcHelp make student feel comfortable and welcome
16 Preparing for a Student Assessing student’s prior experienceResuméStudent’s own verbalizationStudent portfolioEspecially important in later rotationsFaculty rotations completed – key information!
17 Preparing for a Student Set clear expectationsLearning contractGeneral description of activitiesClear breakdown of gradingOther important documentation, such as confidentialitySigned by preceptor and student Day 1
18 Preparing for a Student Types of learnersAuditoryVisualSomatic (tactile, kinesthetic)Motivating factors
20 Evaluations Informal vs. Formal Based on expectations which have been clearly articulated
21 Informal Evaluations Generally Verbal Should be: Continuous and OngoingAfter presentationEnd of projectConstructive
22 Formal Evaluations Types Should be: Project-related (journal club, cases, pt interviews)SummativeShould be:Written - using form(s)Routine (at least twice per rotation for summative)Direct and SuccinctHonestSpecificMeaningful (include a plan for improvement)
23 Evaluation Instrument Provided by SOPLinked to outcomesProne to subjectivity and biasNeed to evaluate not only knowledge and skills but also attitude.
24 6 Step Approach to Completing Evaluation Form Observe – Need to observe several times during period. Ask others.Record – Use index cards or PDA.Retrieve – Organize all documentsAnalyze – Look for patterns of performance (consistency, assistance needed?, prompting needed?)Self-AssessmentEvaluate
25 Pitfalls in Evaluations Harshness or Leniency based on personal relationshipsCentral TendencyProximity ErrorContrast ErrorGrading on improvement/effortGrade Inflation
27 How to Deliver Evaluation Have documentation ready (including a review of the student’s self-assessment)Use quiet private place for evaluationReview comments and ratingsProvide examples from documentationHighlight strengths and areas for improvementIdentify improvement plan
28 Difficult StudentsWhy are Students Difficult? What are the indicators of the difficulties?
29 Difficult Students: Things for Preceptor to Consider Were objectives and expectations clearly outlined?Is patient care potentially compromised?Is this the first time for the student in this practice environment? Is this a first rotation?Has feedback been given to the student?Am I approachable?Have other members of the staff been helpful to the student?
30 Strategies for Dealing with Difficult Students Conduct self-assessment (preceptor)Determine the underlying problemDocument problemInform the studentOutline a planCommunication !With studentWith siteWith school
31 Meeting with a Problem Student Agree on a private time – inform the student about the nature of the meeting.Be objective and clear about your assessment of the problemLet student know about the seriousness of the problem (to patients, to grade)Give the student an opportunity to present their views. Is there something you are unaware of?Don’t interrupt or get defensive.Document and Communicate!
32 Students Can FailPreceptors do not assign failing grades – students earn them!Often very difficult situation.Ask yourself?Would I want this individual working in my environment? Providing patient care?Could a pharmacist get fired for such behavior (tardiness, absences, unprofessionalism, major medication error)